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Starting the third part of this course, that is, talent development, And we'll start with the employee value proposition. In short, it is EVP. So what is EVP and why it is, is important? EVP, as I've said in the past, is a war of talent. So, whenever an employee is hired by your company, if there is a talent war, he or she will have multiple job offers. So he will evaluate why the total work experience at your organisation is superior to that at the other organization. So apart from compensation, apart from designation, apart from the work profile, what more are you offering to that employee so that he or she should join your firm instead of any other? Why should I join this organization? Is it only because of the work profile? Is it because there's a brand name? Is it because there's a good composition? Or is it because there's a flexible working arrangement? Or is it because it's a good definition? Or I would be working with my past colleagues. So what am I getting since I joined this organization? What this firm is offering me, which other firms may or may not offer, or even if they do, I may not be that engaged by the way they are offering me, So what additional they are providing meso that I can join them. So these additional things or a bucket of things that you're offering to the candidate are called an "employee value proposition." The employee value proposition describes a mix of characteristics, benefits, or the way of working in the organisation so that you're providing challenging opportunities, job rotations, and versatile, dynamic projects to the candidate. It is a deal that was struck between the organisation and employee in return for their contribution and performance. So the value that they would be adding to the organisation would provide you with that competitive edge and would help you achieve the business goals, but in return, you're providing them with the challenging growth opportunities that guided growth might provide, such as international equipment opportunities, which they might not be getting if they join any other firm. They are working on a versatile project, and they're getting the job at the Protection Office. So not only are they working in one specific department, but they are getting a flavour of other departments as well. This deal that has been stuck between the employer and the organisation provides you with that competitive edge and helps you to attract that talent, which your competitors are unable to. So it's a competitive advantage for the firm to attract the talent and, in return, increase their market share and achieve their business goals. Now, you would be thinking that if I offer a good composition and good benefits to the candidates or employees, obviously they will join me, but that's not the case. So there's a study that has been done by Merrill in which it talks about the fact that there's a high correlation between the things that you have offered to the candidate as compared to the things that you think may have a high correlation. So, in terms of motivation, career development is a higher correlation factor than benefits or compensation satisfaction. employee get When they get that sense of belonging in the organization, when they feel okay, my idea will be listened to by the senior management. If I'm sharing an idea, they would be listening to it with an open mind. I can put my thoughts in front often people, they would listen to me. So that sense of belongingness he or she is getting with his organization's career development means employees are ready to join at a lower salary as compared to their competitors. If they decide to join this organization, they will be given challenging opportunities and career development that will allow them to advance in the field in which they wish to work. It's not that every person in the organisation would like to be a people manager. Some people would like to be subject matter experts; some people would like to work as business advisors. So where this person would like to grow, are you able to provide them with those career development opportunities that provide them satisfaction instead of compensation through benefits? Obviously, compensation and benefits have some correlation. It's not that they do not have a correlation, but yes, the sense of belongingness and career development have a higher core relationship as compared to compensation and benefits, which provide your advantage as compared to your competitors. Texas Advocacy So again, the career development-sense of-belonging mix is more important compared to the composition and benefits described next is committed.So how long would they like to staywith the organisation or is that okay? They will work for the first year, learn about the job, and then want to move on to another organisation that will pay them more because, now that they have that brand nametag, they know what the job entails. So obviously they can join any other organisation at a higher salary compared to what you are offering. But that's not the case if you're providing the candidate with meaningful work, challenging work, versatile projects, job protections, international working with different stakeholders, and international stakeholders. So once they're getting that much for work, obviously they would not like to go to their competitors, even if they provided them with a higher salary, because they are getting the challenging opportunities that will help them in their career group, which will help them learn new things and enhance their knowledge and their skill commitment. And along with that, if there's a higher commitment, that means the employee will be staying with you longer, period. So your intention to stay with the organisation increases if the employees are committed and engaged. So obviously compensation, benefits, and rewards for performance do play an important role. I do not say that they do not play an important role in EVP, and they do. But there's something more that these millennials are looking for, and that is career development, meaningful work, a sense of belonging, and support for wellness. So it's not just that you gave them this insurance coverage and that's it. Now what more you're providing them? There's so much stress among the malaria patients because they want to learn so many things in a short period of time. So what organisation is doing to help them maintainthat work life balance, help them do their careerdevelopment, their learning growth and also they're getting thetime to do a different kind of thing. Not only do they want to work, they want to go hiking, they want to go to a Zumba class, they want to do yoga, they want to do jockey, and they want to do this 10,000-step race per day step race.So this is all that comes under "support for wellness." So with this great stress that is happening in day-to-day life, most of the employees also feel that anxiety among themselves, which they cannot express to their manager. So the organisations are providing them employee assistance programme wherethey can speak to the councillors who can assist themhow to manage the anxiety, if they're facing some depression,they can help them how to work on this depression,how to work on this anxiety during this covid 19,how to maintain your work life and how to manageyour personal and professional life. So these all fall under "support for wellness." Are you providing these benefits to millennials because they value them more than compensation and benefits? People nowadays want to achieve more and more in a shorter period of time because life has become so stressful. They don't want to leave any stone unturned. So the employee value proposition discusses a variety of benefits or the things that you're offering to the candidate in exchange for their product or contribution to the organization. So let's talk about what major things come under the employee value proposition, but they could be a few additional things as per the organization. Before that, I would like to discuss the importance of the employee value proposition. It helps to attract and retain talent; I've talked about it a lot in the past, but it also helps to appeal to different markets and is difficult to hire talent. So there are a few skills that are niche skills, and there is always a competitive fight going on among them to get the best talent on good.Giving an example in a consulting firm, people who have been in consulting for, let's say, ten years are being considered subject matter experts; they are being considered as having great talent. Now, competitors are always fighting to get them on board because it gives them a competitive advantage. Their name is already on the market. So clients attract to their name,client doesn't attract to the firm. But this person worked with PwC. I have worked this person with last ten years. He had great knowledge, but now he has moved to the other firm, KPMG. So let's switch to because I have worked with this person, I am comfortable with this knowledge, and I am comfortable with this customer dealing. I am comfortable that whatever he advised me would be good for my organization. So, if you want to attract talent, you must offer them something other than a salary, which helps to reengage a disgruntled workforce. So when you're designing the employee value proposition, obviouslyyou will be doing survey, you will be talkingto your existing employee, you will be asking them,okay, what make you stay with the organization? What we can do more of that you believe will be beneficial or additional to you So when you're talking to your existing employees, you're trying to gauge their current level of engagement. And if you're able to satisfytheir unengaged part, obviously you're makingthem engage the discharge workforce. So with this employee value proposition, you are not only trying to engage the talent onboard, but you're trying to engage the current employees on board as well. So it's doing a dual purposehelp to prioritise your HR agenda. As I said. So HR agenda has to be continuously basis. It's not that once you have designed the EVP, it's done; no, it has to be continuously evolved as per the changing dynamics of your current workforce. So, giving an example, at the last organisation I was working with when I joined the firm, the average age of the employees was 25 to 26. But by the time I left the organization, it had matured to 30 to 35. What is the reason? First, there were different roles have comeup over the period of time. So we needed more experienced employees. Also, the employees who were at the earlier age of 25 to 26 have matured to the age of 30 years.So 25 to 26 age group of people, theirEVP would be different as compared people who arein the age group of 30 to 35. 25 people would not be focusing more on your savings; they would be focusing on how you can provide me challenging opportunities and how you can increase my cash on hand. However, people in their 30s to 35s are looking for stability; they are looking for that, "Okay, my cash on hand can reduce, but my savings should increase because, over the course of time, gradually I'm retiring or my family planning is something I'm thinking of, so I have to think about my family so that when I retire I have this lump sum amount in my hand." So, the employee value proposition must be continuously improved to determine what your age group or employees are currently looking for and how you can provide those benefits to them. Another example is that, during this COVID-19, your employee proposition may change to engage your employees who are working from home. They could be anxious, thinking there might be a problem and that they are not able to manage their personal and professional lives. Since children are not going to school, they have to manage their children as well. Their in laws are there or people who areliving alone, they're singles, they are living alone. They don't need to go to the office anymore. Gyms are not there. Outings are not there. They are stuck at home just doing work. That anxiety level, that stress level, is increasing. So what can you offer them to keep them engaged? What can you offer them to maintain their work-life balance? What can you offer them so that they understand they can start managing their work and the deliverables are not being hampered? So your employee value proposition changes depending on your employee age group, business dynamics, external environment dynamics, and even industry practices. Employees nowadays speak a lot to their friendswho are working in the different organization. So they know what is industry practicesgoing on, what are the additional benefitstheir peer group are getting. So they want the organisation to be up to date and say that yes, this organisation is offering this benefit. Why do we not have this? So you have to be updated on what the industry practises are, what you can incorporate for your current group, what we cannot incorporate, and what we can bend. So it's not that you have to replicate the currency industry practices; you can mould it as per your organisational needs. So you have to continuously prioritise your HR agenda. Create a strong people brand with this, giving youan example, people are ready to join Apple, peopleare ready to join Google or Microsoft, this bigname, even if their designation is reduced on. I know so many colleagues of mine who were directed intheir form, in the current form, but they were ready tojoin this big name at senior manager level, or they weresenior manager at the current organisation and they were ready tojoin at a manager level one level down. Why? They were doing great. They were hitting a department in the current organization. So now why do they want to move down one level into another organization? Because they know that if they join these firms, they will give us challenging opportunities that their current firm is not able to provide them.They have reached saturation in their current job. So even if they are heads of the department, what's next for them? There's nothing. They cannot see their career goals. They cannot see the enhanced knowledge and skill. They are stuck with their current role. There's nothing where they can see or wish that, okay, this is what's next for me. So that's why they are ready to go to this organisation even if they have to compromise at one level. So, this organisation has created a strong personal brand. They know that the employees are ready to join them with the expectation that yes, they will learn a lot. Their knowledge and their skills will enhance ours if they join us. Reduce the higher premium, right? Let me give you an example of designation. However, premium also plays a larger role. So their niche skills Keeping an example in mind, in my last organization, we were hiring somebody for a data scientist role. We had to pay a premium of around 25%. That person in his previous organizationwas earning something around, let's saya hypothetical figure of 15 lakhs. Normal industry practise is that once you switch jobs, you get an average of 30% more. However, over that 30%, we had to pay an additional 15%. So, can you think of that? How much hike it is? We only paid him so much because he possesses that specialised skill. Now, there are few organisations that have to pay a lower premium as compared to the other organizations. Why? Because they are telling the employee that it's not only salary that we're offering you; these are the other things. Also, if you join our organization, you will get that. So, if you join our organisation outside of the normal period, after six months of completing this probation period, you will have the opportunity to travel to different offices around the world and work with various stakeholders. You would be enhancing your knowledge on different topics. You will be working on versatile projects. You will be working with different stakeholders. You would be working on the latest technology and tools. So employees are attracted—okay, it's not only salary. I'm getting something beyond that. So, with these organizations, they have to pay a lower premium as compared to the organisations who are unable to provide this employee value proposition. So they have to pay more premiums compared to the others. Now, as I said earlier, the employee proposition covers the bucket of things that I have laid out over here. However, there could be additions or deletions as per the organization. So, when the firm is small, obviously, the bucket would be smaller. But when the firm is big, there's more cash, or there's a more productive, higher-level workforce, and so the pocket would increase. So the first one is compensation. Yes, the compensation is a basic need that will always remain on the bucket list. But what composition is it's?only the cash in hand or something beyond it? First is obviously the salary satisfaction. Then is the compensation system satisfaction. So, let's take an example. You told a candidate that your starting salary is 15 lakh. employee joined the firm at the end of the first month. Once he gets his salary, he gets disappointed because you said he would make Rs 15 lakh. But when he sees his salary in the account or on his paystub, he sees that there are a lot of deductions in it that are not restricted or that were not told to him at the time of his joining. So is your compensation system satisfactory or fair? Which has one been told to employ at the time of hiring, raising, and promoting? Is the employee getting fair raises and promotions in a timely manner, or is it like he joined the organisation at the executive level and had to wait for five years to get promoted to the next level? So how is the growth cycle or the promotion cycle going on? The timeline is whatever the compensation is. Let's take an example. You say that every April there would be a composition of the appraisal hike, but it's getting delayed for two or three months every year. So obviously the timeline is getting effective, your employeeshike is getting effective even if you're paying hima s, but still it's getting effectiveness. Fairness is a compensation system. Promotions, are they fair? Whatever deductions you are making from the employee's account, are they fair? How is the evaluation system for raises and promotions? Are they fair? Then there are benefits, which are something extra that you provide to the employee in terms of time off when they can take it and holidays. So public holidays are observed. How many public holidays are there? In case the employee has to work on a public holiday, how are you compensating that? Insurance? Is the insurance only for the employee, or for his spouse and children, or for his parents? or if there's any deduction on top of the premium. How is it that that's the competitive edge you're providing to him? That satisfies to him satisfaction with the systemthat is the system that is in place. Is it easy to use or is it the employee has a fullknowledge about it or in case he has some queries to it. Can it be easily answered, or does he have to linger around? Retirement benefits, education, whether there is flexibility, a work-from-home arrangement, flexible timings or not, and what additional benefits you provide for family are all important considerations. The opportunity to advance and develop stability in the organisation comes next. So during this transition time, you can see that there are a lot of layoffs going on in different organizations. So is your organisation able to provide that stability during these difficult times or not? So right now, this layoff does have some negative impact on the organization. Obviously, everybody knows that this layoff cannot be unjustified because obviously, hospitality, airlines, and all these industries are effective, but what you're doing is trying to retain more and more employees, so these factors do make an impact when the person is joining the organization, receiving training and education at work, and pursuing career development. So I am a person who doesn't want to go into people management. Do I have any other career prospects orit's just that there is a career peoplemanager role only for me college education. So I joined as a graduate. Now I want to pursue my masters. Will my organisation help me to pursue my Masters? I have some questions regarding my further career development. Whom should I contact? Do we have any consultation services or not? evaluation and feedback? I really want to know how I'm performing currently. What are my improvement areas? How can organisations support my improvement areas? Next is the work environment. Am I getting recognised for my work or am I getting the credit for my work? Or in a bigger picture, whatever contribution Ihave done is not being noticed by anybody. Is my work even a smaller contribution? Is it being recognised by the management, and should I be getting recognised for it? Is there enough autonomy for me to make decisions on minor issues or to ask for my roles or responsibilities, or is there a lot of micromanaging and I don't have anything so the work has been assigned to me and I just need to do it as part of the process without using my brain? So do I have that autonomy where I can take that decision, or can I put my ideas in front of the management to see whether they're approved or not? But I have faith in myself that, yes, my idea would be diminished by the organization, my personal achievement. So whatever the milestone I have thought of for myself, have I been able to achieve it in my current role or not? Am I getting that work-life balance? Am I getting challenging opportunities? Is it possible for me to comprehend how whatever I contribute to the organisation relates to or contributes to a larger picture? The last is culture: understanding the firm's goal and plan. Or is it just that I'm doing my work and I don't know what the organization's vision is, what the organization's goals are, what the organization's mission is, or what the bigger picture is? Or is it that I have to come do my work and go home? That's it. I'm not concerned about what organisation will do my work. So am I getting that sense of belongingness—that yes, whatever work I have contributed, this work is leading to the business goal? How my contribution can help theorganization reach its business goals? How my colleagues are we working in the team work? There's a healthy competition, but there's a negative competition, and everybody's pulling each other's legs. So how is the competition within the team? Is it a healthy environment or not? leaders and managers. Are leaders and managers helping me in my career development? Are they providing me credit for my work? Or am I being treated respectfully on the team or not? Do I have that confidence, given to me by my manager, that I can share my ideas? Am I being empowered to take decisions on a few roles that have been assigned to me? Am I getting the support I need in difficult times? Is there collaboration and team spirit within the team, and do I have that? Can I participate in social responsibilities in which there is no work but we are doing something – returning to the environment, returning to society – and do we have trust in the organization? So trust is a basic foundation. Do I have trust in the management? Do I have trust in my colleagues? Do I have trust in the managers? Do I have trust in my support for it? So once this bucket is filled by the organization, you will always have an engaged employee onboard. So on the next slide, I'm giving you two examples: two programmes that are being launched by these technology firms to engage employees or to provide additional things so that they feel connected to the organization. Or they have a strong sense of belonging to the organization. Or they get the challenging opportunities that attracted them to the organization, and we would like them to stay with the organization.So the first one is BMW Group Canada, and this is a graduate intern program. So once the intern has completed the 16-month internship, they are eligible for a graduate programme in which they will get more roles and responsibilities, and there's a job protection opportunity that will help them explore areas where they would like to enhance their further careers. So they move to a different organization, where they indicate their interest level, and based on their interest level and their potential, they will be allocated to departments so that they can enhance their knowledge. Next is Catbury. They have launched a programme called Go Bad with GoMAD. You would think, "Oh, that's so crazy," but that's not true. It's an acronym, or go make a decision. So they're empowering their employees; they are giving them that confidence that, yes, you can take your decisions, you can be more productive at work, and you have the authority to take decisions. They are making them more empowered so that they can try new things and become more innovative, and some of the taglines that they use to promote this programme are "put yourself on the line" say if it's not good enough." So they give him confidence. When the manager is putting forth an idea and you think it's not a good one, go ahead and just confront him or just go into that argument mode and say, "Okay, you set forth this idea, but I think this will not work." ABC are my reasons but this idea is great but Ihave a few additional points to it so that we canmake it better and these are my thoughts to it. So you're giving them those points. PowerPoint does not sell candy obviously what are youdoing additional or what new ways you can comeup so that we can increase your sales sorted. Don't sit on it. So don't come up with a problem. Tell me. Okay Radika, this is what the problem is. I think these are the two solutionsthat has come up to mind. Let me know your thoughts on it. Or do you think we should go with Solution A as compared with Solution B? And these are my thoughts on it. Tell me what you think orif you have any additional idea. So they're empowering their employees where they have thatconfidence that they come up with the thought, theycome up with the problems along with the solutions. So this has worked great for the category because the confidence level has increased and they are coming with the idea. So when ten ideas come up, obviously, out of the many ideas, one would be a successful one. So the employee value proposition is all about that. It's providing a gamut of benefits to the employees or trying out their talent so that you can engage them. An engaged employee leads to better productivity, adding value to the organization, which helps achieve the business goal and indeed gives the organisation a competitive edge as compared to the competitors. So we've finished the employee.
But before we start that, let's try to understand what we have covered so far. So we finished Part One of this program, which was an overview, in which we discussed the evolution of the HR function and how to align HR with business strategies. We completed Part Two, Talent Acquisition, in which we discussed employer branding, different strategies and mechanisms used by the companies, the recruitment cycle, onboarding, and the orientation cycle. For part three talent development, we discussed employeevalue proposition, that is a committee of thingsthat are being offered to the candidate orto the employees in return for a higherproductivity to achieve business goals. Now we will be starting with talent and development, what it is, and what things need to be kept in mind while doing talent development for your organization. So let's get started with talent development. What is talent development? It is a continuous process in which you unfreeze your current state of knowledge, relearn new things, and incorporate the new learning to achieve business goals, a vision and mission, and individual career growth. It is a continuous process in which we are running parallel to the change in a dynamic environment. So you have to continuously learn new things because the market or the environment is continuously changing and evolving. So to keep up with that pace, you have to continuously run and learn new things. To give you an example in HR only, do you remember ten years ago when you first heard of A in HR? Did you ever think AI would be used to shortlist resumes, or that it would replace management or compensation? Everything would be managed by the portals instead of Excel. So yes, things are continuously changing, companies are evolving, and people around you are evolving, but how can you keep up with that pace when you're continuously learning and understanding what's going on around you and how you can adopt it, and how can you practise it in your current organisation to achieve the bigger picture? So, training and development are two different things. When I say "training," what I mean is the acquisition of knowledge, skill, and abilities to improve or enhance your current job performance, proficiency, or productivity. So, whatever you're doing right now to improve your proficiency and expertise level in your current role, whatever training you receive will help you learn new things. So that is known as training because you are learning something new to enhance your current job profile. But when I say development, that means you are enhancing your current level of knowledge for future job prospects or for your individual career goal. It is not related to your current job profile. Giving an example your current role, let'stake an example is a financial analyst. Now you learn something new, which helps you increase your proficiency in reporting or reduce your reporting time. That is, learning how to improve the productivity of current job skills However, you are going through people manager training because the team or management expects you to start having some people manage your responsibilities one year down the road. So you're honing your current skills or expanding your knowledge in the domain of people management, which will help you perform well in your future responsibilities. Training is rated according to your current job development and the enhancement of your career goals or reorganisation objectives. In the long term, it is not related to your current job profile. Now, when you design the learning programme for your employees, what things need to be kept in mind? Is it the same learning mechanism that is used in schools that can be applied to employees, or is there something different? Yes, there are two different things. When you're designing a learning programme for children, there are different goals or different objectives that need to be kept in mind. And when you're designing the training programme or a learning and development programme for your employees, then a different objective or methodology needs to be in place. The traditional approach to learning and development used to teach children is known as pedalogy. However, the traditional approach to learning and development used to teach adults is known as androgogy. Pedagogy is later for children, and androgogy is later for adults. So, whenever we design a learning and development programme for adults, we must keep in mind that it must be goal-directed so that your other employees, or, as I would say going forward, employees, want to know what they will get at the end of this programme while they are learning it. Are they ready to learn this program? Do they have that willingness—yes, they want to learn this program? So at the end of this program, to give you an example, I was enrolled in a Microsoft Excel advanced program. I know that at the end of this programme I will increase my efficiency in Microsoft Excel. I will be able to prepare better reports; I will be able to analyse data in a better way; I will be able to summarise tech data in a better way. So I know that once I go through the Microsoft Advanced Excel program, what will I learn out of it? But am I ready? Am I willing to put that knowledge to use? It is being forced on me by my manager that you go through this training. So I'm going through, but I don't think so. I do require that I be happy in my current state. I'm comfortable with whatever reports I'm producing. I don't think so anymore. Efficiency is required. So if I'm going with that mindset, do you think I will be able to get better returns from this training? No. So whenever you're designing the training programme for adults, you need to understand that you have to explain to them that while they are learning this program, you have to make them willingly, not forcefully, ready to learn the programme so that their return from the training is higher when they're doing it. Active participation. They want to participate in training, need analysis, and share input in planning and instructions. So let's take a similar example: I am part of this Microsoft Excel training that is happening next week. Now the instructor calls me up and asks, "Ravika, can you tell me everything you know right now in Microsoft Excel?" Or what is your work profile? So that when I'm designing a training program, I understand, "Okay, this is what the RADIKA profile is." These are the things that she must know so that I incorporate them in the training program. When my inputs are taken into account in the training design, then obviously my return from training will be higher because I have participated in training. Need analysis. Give me an example. In HR, I would need training in which a set of formulas is used or a shortcut in formulas is used instead of aggression analysis or predictive analysis. I do not need that in my current role. So if somebody is teaching me that, I would not be willing or show much interest because I know once I go through this training, I will not be able to use it in my day-to-day job. However, if somebody is telling me shortcuts or a formula, like how to use a simple formula instead of a complicated formula, my interest level will gradually increase because I know that I will be able to use this in my day-to-day role. Relevance of training: Students want to solve problems and apply their knowledge immediately. I want to learn those things that I can immediately apply to my job knowledge.If I had more day-to-day knowledge, my return on training would be higher. Let's take an example. In school, when you were going through geometry or history, your willingness to learn those subjects was low as compared to math. Reason behind it, you didn't know that when you willlearn history, how you will use it in the future. However, when you learned math, you knew that normal profit and loss, all those things you're using on a day-to-day basis, even when you're talking to your parents, meant, "Okay, if I do this work, what will I get in return?" So that calculation you're using is on a day-to-day basis, so that knowledge that you were gaining was helping you in your day-to-day basis in terms of history, because you didn't know how history would help you in your long-term career. So, if trading is relevant, the interest on Earth and the return on trading will be higher. self-directed and able to learn independently and autonomously. So I'm giving you this course right now; I'm doing this recording now. Whenever you want to go through this course, you can go as per your flexibility or as per your time convenience. It has been decided by you that you have to complete this course in the next 6 hours. Do you think your return on this trade would be higher? Or if I tell you that you have this video recording, you can go through it as many times as you want to go.You can go through it and ask for flexibility. Obviously, you will have a relaxed mind. Your return on this training would be higher becausewherever you feel like as per your comfortable timezones, you can go through this training. Every training programme now has three stages. One is decorative knowledge. The learner is still reliant on resources when acquiring new knowledge, facts, or information. Giving an example, a shopkeeper recently joined the store. Now, when our customer purchases anything, he has to open his item code book and see, okay, this is the item; what is the item code? Then he will punch that item code into the computer, and he has to run the process. Okay, when it's cash, then how do I have to run the process? When it's a credit card, then I have to run the process. When it's a gift card, then it's a different thing. When there's a coupon applied by the customer, then what I have to do So every time he is referring to the differentprocesses for every time he's referring to the itemcode because everything is new for the shopkeeper. So it's decorated knowledge. so the time used by the shopkeeper will be higher because he's still learning it. Next is knowledge compilation and integration, task-based skill sequence, and learners' performance, which may still be fragmented. Now, let's take this shopkeeper over the course of time. Only he knows that, okay? Whenever a customer comes in and whenever he makes a purchase, I have to follow these steps. He is aware of the item code numbers for the common items purchased by customers. I need not go to the item code list. Because every day, day in, day out, he's punching those numbers. So he need not go to the item code list. However, when the customer purchases some unusual item, he needs to refer to the item call list or any new scenario that comes into the picture. Then he has to go through the processing list. So any new scenario could be that a return has come up, which hasn't been coming up in the last month. So now that the return needs to be entered into the computer, he will again refer to the process book. So if something new has come up or an unusual purchase has come up and he is still wrapping up that knowledge, his proficiency level in his field of expertise is still not higher. It is known as knowledge compilation. But after six months, when he has handled all these scenarios and most of the purchase calls are almost all the item codes he knows, then he has mastered that skill. Performance is automatic now whenever any items hesees automatically he will punch us the numbersunconsciously because now he has mastered it. So this is known as procedure knowledge. This entire theory or this entire act is being called "the innocent adaptive character" of a thought person who, over a period of time, consciously overloads and habitually transfers knowledge from decorative to procedural knowledge. So what is a learning organization? A learning organisation is one that acquires, organizes, and shares information and knowledge and uses the new information to change its behaviour in order to achieve its objectives and improve its effectiveness. Learning organisations are those organisations in which the organisational culture is created in such a way that new things are learned, shared, and documented for the future. And the environment is continuously learning new things to increase effectiveness and objectives. So that's a learning organization. Now, whenever you are designing a learning program, a normal AIDDE model is being followed. It's an instructional system design framework that many instructional designers and training developers use to develop a training course. So this is a regular process that most of the organisations or most of the traders would follow because it covers all the steps that the training programme looks forward to. So whenever you're designing your training program, you have to follow the ad model. So what is an ad model? It's a cycle. The cycle starts with first you haveto analyse the need of the training. Once you have identified the need for the training, you have to design the program. Once you have designed the program, then you have to develop the content that you will be sharing with the employees. Once you have designed and developed then youimplement the training and once the training isbeing implemented, then you evaluate its effectiveness. Once the effectiveness has been determined, the gap identified as a result of the training requirement is examined. So it is a continuous cycle that is being followed in a training program. So let's discuss each step in detail in the following slides. First, analyse your needs. In this, the trainer identifies the problem objectively. What is the objective of this training program? Why are we doing it? What We Will Achieve at the End of This Program Training program? What is the learning needs and whatis the learner's existing knowledge and skills? So once we identify the this is what the basiclearners knowledge and skills now we know the foundation, wehave to just add or build over it. But before we do analysis for learners, we have to follow the big picture. First, we do organisational analysis. We understand that what is the strategy of the firm, what are the priorities, and what is the environmental situation right now? What are the changes in the environment going on? What are the industry practises going on? Trading exchanges cultures, so what is the current culture? being followed in the organization? Is it a formal, an informal, or a hybrid training culture? We know this is the organisation strategy we want to achieve after conducting an organisational analysis. We conduct task analysis to achieve the organization's strategy. What are the tasks required to be done to achieve the bigger picture? So we assess the current processes that need to be followed and the potential job requirements. So we know that these are the current job requirements that are currently in place. However, to achieve the business strategy, these are the new job requirements that have come into the picture. So now we know the current and potential job requirements. Then we conduct a personnel analysis to understand the current and future job requirements. The person who is doing this role does have those skills, proficiency, competencies, and aptitudes to do the current and potential job requirements. ABC are the roles, and he is skilled and knowledgeable in A and B. The C, on the other hand, lacks that knowledge. So that is the gap we need to trade for so that he can perform on the current and potential job requirements to achieve the organisational strategy. Now, how can we identify different training needs? We can conduct organisational analysis, task analysis, or even personal analysis. These are the methods of collecting the information. We can observe the current performance of the employees. We can have that questionnaire, which we can share with the manager's HODs or even the employees, asking them then, "What are the requirements? Where is the gap?" We can have a meeting—a one-on-one meeting with the HODs or a one-on-one meeting with the employees. We can have a consultant in place where they're talking about, let's see, this is what the next milestone looks like, this is where the gap is that you need to work upon, or this is a new change that has come up in which you need to train your employees. As an example, when the GST came into place, most organisations worked with big, conservative firms to incorporate the tax. Now that GST has been incorporated, however, they have to train their current finance team so that they have the knowledge and, going forward, they can do the process correctly. Industry Practices: So what are the different industry practises that have come into the picture so that you can continuously train your employees to have that competitive edge? Otherwise, you would be lagging behind your competitors. You can have interviews, either with the candidate or with these new employees, to understand what's going on and what happened in their previous organisation that we can incorporate in their current organization. Focus Groups: So you can have a focus group with a group of ten or 20 employees to understand what their training needs are and what they think they need to do to enhance their current performance. You can have pre-tests for the employees to see where the gap is and where they are lagging, and then you can identify the training needs. Various reports, such as timesheet reports, performance reports, and quality reports, can assist you in determining the training needs analysis. Next are work samples. Work samples are mostly used for the freshers.When they join in, a small amount of similar work that they need to perform is given to them, and based on their performance on the current work sample, the training need is identified. So once the training need is identified, then we design the program. How we design in training design, we decide thatwhat will be the objective of the training program? What will the training program's overview content be, and how will it be delivered? So what would be the major objective of this program? What would we be covering over the period of time, and what are the principles that employees need to understand at the end of this program? Who will perform the desired behavior? So when you're designing all these objectives, you need to understand, okay, when I'm designing the program, we need to understand who will perform? Will it be done by executives, or will it be designed for middle management, or will it be designed for senior management? Because if you're designing it for junior management, your learning methodology would be different. It would be more of a theory and case-practice approach. However, when you're designing for senior management, it can be a one-on-one consultation or it could be more of a game simulation. So for whom are you designing this program? Who will perform the desired behavior? That is important. The behaviour will demonstrate that learning has taken place. So what behaviors? You are looking for an employee, which tells you that yes, the training has taken place. What change in behaviour do you want from the employee? when and where the behaviour is demonstrated and evaluated. So when this behaviour will be evaluated and where it will be evaluated, will it happen just after the training, and the change will come, or will it come gradually over the period, and how will you evaluate? Will it be a post-rest period or just an observation? Or what would be the evaluation mechanism? So there are three key components. When you're designing the training program, you have to keep in mind performance, i.e., what is the change in behaviour that you're looking forward to? What are the conditions under which the change will come about, please? And what will be the criteria of evaluation Once you have decided all these things, then you have to make the decision whether you will buy the program, whether you will outsource this training programme to a consultant or to a third-party outsource vendor, or whether you will build this training module in-house. Once you have made the decision, then comes the development phase. In the development phase, you are clear about the learning strategy. OK, this is what I want to achieve at the end of this training program. Define the project's scope; what will be the content if you're outsourcing that? What will be the budget of the training schedule? When will this training happen? In the next six months, it would happen next month and be a one-day program, or it would happen over a longer period of time in the next six months. Who will be the audience? Will it be one specific department or will it be junior management, middle management, or senior management? Establish rating parameters to compare the trainer's profile and proposal. So if you're outsourcing, obviously you will be getting multiple profiles and proposals from trainers. So, what are the checklist or rating parameters that you will use to compare the trainer's profile and proposal? Which training profile and proposal meets your objective, your budget, and your overall strategy? Establish a communication mechanism to promote the training and increase the readiness of participants. So how will you promote this training programme so that the employees whom you want to attend are ready or have the willingness to have an active role in the training program? So this is when you're developing the training program, when you're deciding or taking the pictures, when you're taking decision-making skills in which you're saying, "Okay, this is what my budget would be." This is what the five criteria are by which I will be comparing the training proposals that I will be receiving from different trainers. How will I communicate? Will I only be doing Will I be only sending an email or will I be putting up posters on the board? Or will I be asking HODs to promote internally? Or will I have a one-on-one meeting with the employees, telling them that they see a training programme coming up; are you interested? Or will I use a combination of one or two approaches? So different trainings have a different communication plan. If it's only for senior management, then you can have a one-on-one discussion with the senior management. Let's see, this is the trading program. We have been thinking we would like you to attend it, but if you want it for junior management, where you want a bigger audience, then you will be sending emails to them asking HODs to promote this training programme internally. You might be putting up posters so that people can nominate their name on a poster basis. So different communication programmes are used for different trainings. What is your agenda behind the training? will help you to design your communication plan. So in development, you decide the content. It should address the performance gap in which the subject matters are usually involved. So when you design the content, you will speak to the subject matter expert. They tell me what the things are that you want me to cover in the training program. What is the desired performance or what is the desired attitude that you're looking forward to in the employees, and where is the gap so that I can focus on these things? I cannot focus on all the things; tell me your priorities. Tell me where the employees are most lacking. where I need to promote. Where I need to focus more on training methods to increase active participation and productive response How can you involve participants more and more in training so that their return on investment is higher? This training approach is designed to support blended training and make it exciting. So there are different training approaches being used by the trainers. It could be the first and most important thing to focus on, whether it's on-site or remote training, and then you have to see what different training approaches are being used. Is it that you're only using the case studies, or you're showing some videos on it, or you're using gamification, or you're using practise tests? So is it that you're using one or two of them? So the more and more training exercises that you use, the higher the active participation in the employees' effective task frequency. Are you showing the entire process at one go?That will make things complicated for learners to learn, so you have to break them down into small tasks so that once they learn one thing, you move to step two. This makes the process easy for them to learn and easy for them to grasp. It doesn't make them stressful; oh my God, there are so many steps that I am not able to understand: what is step one and what is step two? So first, focus on step one. Once they have learned step one, they move onto step two. So you're creating a task of sequences that make them easy to learn, and then once they have learned all the sequences, they understand the rationale behind the entire task. Include exercise to correlate and increase training effectiveness. So, whatever case studies or videos you want to show employees—or whatever gamesimulations you want to show them—they should be related to their training and day-to-day work, so they can correlate and understand, which will help with training effectiveness, continuous feedback, and improved performance. So once the training is being completed managers shouldidly give feedback continuously to the employees to tellthem OK, you attended this training last month. I have seen that there is some improvement. Now you need to work on the remaining things. Once you're continuously giving feedback to the employees that "OK, this is what has been improved and this needs to be improved," then you'll see that there's a better response, there is an enhancement in the performance, and next comes the implementation. So now you're finally implementing the program. Lessons and plans should include training objectives. That is the ultimate goal of this training program. And trainers or instructors should know who is coming; they should have a background on everyone's profile so that they can have that icebreaker and start trading right away. Time and location and location shouldbe clear to all the allocation. Location should be in such a way that theemployees are not being affected by their current work. It's not that; it's just next to their seat, and whenever they are listening to a training, OK, there's a meeting in ten minutes or the colleague is asking for something, so they are getting disturbed very frequently. So it is preferable to have onsite trainings where they are not distracted by their day-to-day work and can focus solely on training. So the return on training is higher. Classroom requirements in setting this up are very important. How is the classroom requirement? Is it in a classroom style? In the classroom style, active participation is very low. However, if it's a round circle or if it's a U circle, then the training participation is higher. So if you're telling employees something very theoretical where they have to understand the process and their involvement is not high or required, then you can have that classroom style. However, if you are telling them about behavioural change, it is recommended that you use a circle or use type so that employees can see each other, see each other's faces, see that expression when they are speaking, and see who is actively listening. So in that in active participation it's alwayssuggested to have circle or U shaped setting. Training Material and Equipment This training material should be given to the trainer. should be given to the learners in advance so that once they come prepared for the training, they know what will be covered. They have gone through the training equipmentmaterial and in case any equipment arebeing required in the training. It should be tested in advance so that it can be used during the training time. Time is not wasted in testing the equipment or replacing the equipment. So all these things should be prepared in advance. To avoid training delays, training supplies and handouts should be distributed in advance to both trainers and learners. Now, for training transfer, three things must be maintained: the participant's ability to apply the learning outside of the classroom, so positive transfer is when the training occurred and the employee's performance has improved. So they were able to apply the training, and that helped in improving their performance. Zero transfer means that no trading has occurred, and the employee's current performance remains unchanged. There's no change in their current performance. When training occurs, negative transfer occurs. However, employee performance has worsened, dipped, or stayed the same. So it's a waste of money, time, and resource. So it's a negative transfer. Now, coming to the evaluation process, we will talk about Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, which is being used by most of the firms. The first one is the reaction. In a reaction at the end of the training, you simply ask the trainees how they feel about the training program. This is the first evaluation criteria, which can happen through a post-training survey or a feedback form. So it's a smiley sheet where they ask them, "How do you find the training program?" Do you find the content to be relevant? Do you find trainer's knowledge to be good onthe exercises that are being done in the training? Do you find it relevant to your day-to-day cases or business cases? So it's the first reaction. After trainees have expressed their feelings about the training experience, learning and measurement of knowledge increase before and after the training. So assessment tests, interviews, or observation of the examples So there could be a pretest that is being done, and then after the training, a post-test could be done to see whether there's any improvement in knowledge. Or managers can see whether there's any change in behavior—a positive change in behavior—in the training programme or not after the training programme and whether it has continued or not. Or you can have a one-on-one discussion with the employees to ask them about how you are feeling. You attended this training one month ago. So what do you think? Is there any improvement in your knowledge or in your behavior? Are you able to handle more independently and effectively? So it's still learning whether the learning has taken place or not. behavior—the extent to which the learning is applied. Once back onto the job, implementation, observationsand interviews over the time are requiredto assist change, relevance of the changeand sustainability of the change. The learning is like an immediate change that you notice. However, behaviour is a longer-term change that you notice in an employee after six months. Do you think the training that happened six months ago—the behaviour that changed immediately after the training—has been continued or sustained or not? Or is there a suggestion or way to improve it? So you continuously observe the behaviour of the trainees over a period of time. The last result to be evaluated is the effect the training has on the business or the environment. It has been measured and shared with the management in a normal reporting setting. So how are the rate change results being evaluated? So whatever the improvement or whatever the benefit that the organisation has earned from the training, Subtract the training cost divided by the training cost multiplied by 100. That is the result of the training that has improved. It is being used to identify the return on investment. What is the return on the investment that you're getting from this training? known as results. So this is the normal ageing model that has been followed by most of the organisation and should be kept in mind when designing the training program. So this comes to an end.
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