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TitleProfessional in Human Resources
HRCI PHR Certification Exam Dumps & Practice Test Questions
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The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health defines workplace violence as violent acts, including physical assaults and threats of assaults directed towards persons at work, on duty, or at home. Workplace violence doesn't have to result in injuries or actual assault. Just the threat of assault is considered violence. Acts of workplace violence can be committed by anyone, including colleagues, managers, clients, customers, patients, or even someone who enters a workplace to commit a crime. This act may also be committed by a person or employees personally involved with such a spouse or domestic partner, friend, or child. According to OSHA, there are about 2 million assaults and threats of violence in the workplace every year, and employers are responsible for protecting their employees from acts of workplace violence. And from a business perspective, employers lose millions of dollars every year in reduced productivity, medical expenses, and lawsuits associated with workplace violence. Diversity includes the race, age, culture, gender, disability, sexual preferences, national origin, or any other factors that make up the personal identities of employees. Inclusiveness is the process of combining the skills of a diverse workforce into a unified team to accomplish a common goal. The success of the organisation depends on it. While diversity and inclusiveness are technically voluntary, they are closely related to equal employment opportunity, or EEO. Lows. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 amended Title Seven of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The initiative, mandated by law, aims to remove discrimination in the workplace and ensure that companies don't use culture, identity, age, disability, or gender as a basis for discrimination. Further, affirmative action was introduced to encourage the hiring and promotion of qualifying individuals who belong to minority groups and to correct past social injustices. Diversity initiatives go beyond the requirements of equal employment opportunity laws and affirmative action and are conscious efforts that organisations make to become more diverse and inclusive collectively. Equal employment opportunity laws, affirmative action, and diversity initiatives share a common goal: to level the playing field in the workplace.
HRCI, or Human Resources Certification Institute, does provide some clear requirements for individuals who are looking to earn certification. For PHR candidates, they must have a minimum of four years of demonstrated entry-level professional experience in HR with less than a bachelor's degree or no degree. For those with a bachelor's degree, a minimum of two years of demonstrated exam-level professional experience in HR And for someone with a master's degree, a minimum of one year of demonstrated exam-level professional experience in HR For SPHR candidates, someone with less than a bachelor's degree or no degree at all must have a minimum of seven years of demonstrated, at-level professional experience in HR. For someone with a bachelor's degree, a minimum of five years of demonstrated exempt level professional experience in HR is required; for someone with a master's degree, a minimum of four years of demonstrated exempt level professional experience in HR is required. But remember what I said earlier in the profession: it's only one consideration, not the deciding factor for which exam is right for you. Now, for some test-taking tips, first read each question carefully and completely before attempting your answer. Remember, the question or material may sound familiar, but it only takes a minor change to one word or phrase to completely change the meaning of the question. Look for keywords or phrases that will tell you exactly what the question is asking. Exam questions are infamous for containing extra words or phrases unrelated to the core of the question. So use the keyword or phrase to help you focus on the core of the question and determine exactly what the question is asking.
Strategy Considerations in the HR Function In Topic Four: Strategy Considerations in the HR Function, we will focus on the basics of environmental scanning, including the Swift and Slap analysis models, the most common types of organisational structures, and some basics of change. Management Theory is an acronym of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and stress. Conducting a sweat analysis allows you to identify and analyse all the favourable factors, strengths, and opportunities that you can take advantage of and all the unfavourable factors, weaknesses, and threats that you will have to overcome or minimize. Strengths are internal and include the organisation's resources, such as the skills, competencies, and experiences of its employees. Weaknesses are also internal and are areas of an organisation that are not efficient or effective. Asking questions about your business's capability can help identify strengths and weaknesses. Then you can make informed decisions about what the business is and isn't capable of doing. Opportunities and threats are external to the business. An organisation has no control over whether these things happen or not, but it does have to prepare for them or have the power to do for them.By identifying the opportunities and threats that the business faces, you can prepare to take advantage of opportunities or overcome or minimise threats. In addition to a Swad analysis, HR professionals can use a model that categorises the business environment into social, legal, economic, political, and technological factors. This is commonly referred to as SlappedModel, and it helps the company stay informed about its general business environment. The SLAB model helps organisations gather and analyse information, which leads to a better understanding of the potential impact the external environment may have on the business. The first step in the SLAP model is to clearly identify the objectives of the analysis. That is, what do you want to learn or what questions do you need to have answered? Next, research and study the outside environment and brainstorm how current environmental factors could affect your organization's ability to achieve its goals or overcome present or future challenges. And finally, consider the potential effect of environmental variables on your business, with a greater focus on the variables that are likely to have the most significant impact.
Organizational structure refers to the way jobs in an organisation are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. Organizations can be roughly categorised as having organisational structures that are either flat or hierarchical. An organisation with a flat structure is generally more democratic than one with a hierarchical structure, and communication generally flows up and down the chain of authority, and employees are encouraged to give feedback. An organisation with a hierarchical structure has a tight chain of authority. Orders filter down from the top, and employees are typically expected to complete tasks without question. This is often the structure in a large organization. An organisational chart doesn't fully illustrate all the subtleties of an organisational structure. However, it gives a representation of its internal workings and of employees' relative positions within the chain of authority. Various elements of organisational structure affect employee behavior. This includes specialization, staff division, centralization, the standardisation of rules, chain of authority, and extent of control. Specialization can increase an organization's efficiency by eliminating the time required to shift mentally and do one task after another. However, the repetition of highly specialised jobs can result in boredom and frustration for employees. So it's important to find a balance between specialisation and variety in the tasks employees perform. A high degree of staff division can enhance communication between members of each group, but it may hinder communication between the groups. Today, the trend is toward decentralization, with organisations focusing on the use of internally driven departments and flexible teams authorised to make their own decisions. However, extreme decentralizationcan hamper productivity. Unless other departments and teams authorised to make decisions communicate well with one another, It can lead to duplicate default jobs, left-unfinished internal conflict, and even extremely wasteful spending. For example, I once worked for a unit of a multinational corporation. Our unit was decentralised to the point where each project team did all its own purchasing, including vendor selection and contract negotiation. What they realised was that several of the teams were using the same basic components and designs, often from the same vendors, but paying vastly different prices. For example, if teams one, two and three usea battery pack, team one was paying $15 perunit, team two was paying $19.5 per unit, andteam three was paying $27 per unit. Centralizing the purchasing took advantage of the economies of scale and reduced the price to five dollars per unit. Chains of authority in organisations have become less formal over time. Although some organisations still enforce strict chains of authority, others encourage employees to communicate with high-level management and executives. This can save time and help employees work more efficiently. Although matching a manager's plan of control with a function and its employees is important for efficient and effective decisionmaking.
There are also various types of organisational structures, each with specific structural elements. Functional structures group employees by tasks and are the simplest and most common. Structure works best for small organisations or larger organisations with fairly simple requirements and that operate from a single location. Having all accounting in one department is an example of a functional structure. Advantages of functional structures are that they tend to encourage effective communication between individuals within departments, improve teamwork, and support quick decision making.Disadvantages include poor interdepartmental communication and a focus on departmental rather than high-level organisational goals. Divisional structures group various employees into strictly defined divisions by location, product, or service. This type of structure is often used by large organizations. For example, a beverage company with a juice division, a water division, and a soft drink division will have an accounting department that is dedicated specifically to each of those divisions. Advantages of divisional structures are that they provide clear employee accountability, encourage hands-on problem solving, focus expertise, support delegation of responsibility, and encourage teamwork. Potential disadvantages are depletions of effort across divisions, a focus on divisional goals at the expense of overall organisational goals, and potential conflict between divisions over resources. Metric structures combine aspects of functional and divisional structures, and a single employee may have two supervisors. For example, Marketing Manager A may report to the Director of Marketing and the General Manager of Product X. Advantages of metric structures include potentially better access to resources, improved technology sharing, and better access to shared expertise. A potential disadvantage of this type of structure is that employees generally report to more than one manager.
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