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10. Floating Static - Default Routing - PART 2

So let's go to the command line and quickly finish up the configuration on the remaining routers here. Now I've got a router one.On router one, I'm going to configure a static route from router one to reach this network via this route and then from router one to reach this route I'm going to prefer the shortest path here and then use router one to reach this network I'm riding this route already. On the router, I have finished the configurations. Let me just go to router two and router three and finish up the configurations on both routers. So I got the command line on router number two. On router two, if I verify the SchwaIP interface brief, all the interfaces are preconfigured with respect to their own IP addresses. And then I'm going to confirm router 2 in such a way that the shortest path is what I'm going to use. So the shortest path from router two to one network is route 10. So I'm using the next of all the sites, and I'm going to write from router two to reach the network, which is router three lamb. In my scenario, the shortest path is 110 0 2. Then, in order to reach one interface, namely the Tend network, Tend network is directly connected. So I'm going to write twelve networks of 25500. I'm writing the next stop as 100 zero one. So on router one, if you verify swipe route static, I can see that to reach the twelve network and the one-door network, it's going via router one, and then to reach the three-door network, it's going directly to router three. Let's go to the router 3 command line and do the same thing on the router 3 as well. On the router, if you verify, show the IP interface in brief. So already, the routers are preconfigured with the IP addresses. So I'll write 192,168 networks from router three. To reach a one-dot network, I'm going to use a 120-point direct link from three to one, and then to reach a 192-168 two-dot network, again I'm going to use the direct link 255-255-2550. And then the next hop is 110 one.And to reach Tendon Network, I can use any one of these routes. So I'm going to use 110 One via router 2. So, if you verify from router one or router three, router three, I can ping one ninety-two, one sixty-eight, one hundred, which is the router one's gateway interface. I can even pin the router to the gateway as well. So I should be able to automatically pinto the LAN interfaces or the land devices in the land, whatever the device in the land is. Now the next thing is what we'll do is onceyou are done with the static routing, the next thingwhat we'll do is we'll try to go and verifysome of the other advanced options of the static routing. Now we call them "floating static." Now, one of the major drawbacks with this normal static routing is that everything has to be manually configured by the administrator. But at the same time there is no agency in general. So what happens now, in my scenario, from the router to the land interface? I'm using this route. So what happens if that route fails? It will be a single point of failure. Now, to overcome that, what we can do is write multiple static routes on the same router, which is router one for this destination, that is, the 182-1682 network. We can also write one more static route via an alternate route. And then what we can do is configure something called Administrator Manual Administrator Distance, where I can tell that the administrative distance to reach this network by default is one. This is the one administrator distance, and I can manually configure the administrator distance on the other routes at ten or higher than one, maybe two also. And what it is going to do is, in this scenario, if the router tries to forward the traffic via this route, because for the same destination there are two or more routes given, it's going to decide the best route based on the administrative distance. So this will be the best route by default. If, for some reason, that route fails, the routing table will be automatically updated with the second route, and router one will continue to forward traffic via router three, allowing router two to access the resources. Now, in this way, what we can do is provide aidancy with this concept; we call it a "floating static route," where we can have multiple static routes for the same destination by using different administrative distance values. So let's try to implement the same thing in our scenario here. In our scenario, too, it's a single point of failure. Let's say on router one, I'm going to shut down the link connecting router one to router two, interface zero. I shut down the link that I gave to static. You can see that whatever the route is dependent on, I'm not able to reach through the network. In this scenario, you can see the true network entryhas been removed because this interface is down and thisis the route which is configured by the administrator. Now, and I want to make sure that if this link fails, automatic routes, the alternate route, must be installed. So let's go and add the alternate static routes to the router one. I'll bring the interface back up first, then we'll configure some static routes, and then we'll again shut down the interface for verification. Now, if I bring the interface up now, we can see the route has been installed here on the route of one. And then I'm going to configure the alternate routes, specifying that IP route to reach the 19168-2 network, as well as one more route. So for two networks already, it is pre configured.I'm going to configure it via 2002, and then I can change the missed resistance value, the default; it's going to take one because I've defined the next top. And if you define both, it's going to install both routes with the same administer distance, and it may be forwarding via both routes. That's for load balancing. But in my scenario, I'm going to use them now. I'm going to do the same thing for three networks, also three networks, and 192-1683 network is 255-255-2550. The default route I configure from router one to reach the three-door network is directroute, which is twelve, zero, two. Now I want to configure the backup route, which is YR 100 two.And then this resistance will number ten. Now these are all the backup routes. And if you verify shared IP routestatic, we still have the main routes. Okay? But if that interface fails, it will automatically install the alternate routes. Let's shut down the link. Now if I shut down this zero-by-zero interface, if I say "shut down," I should see all the traffic going by an alternate route. If you just try to verify here, show the IP routestatic I can see this because I set up an alternate route for the two and three dot networks. I can see all the traffic is going to twelve, zero, two, and this network. And if the interface reappears, let's set it back to up, with no shut on command. And if I verify shows IP routestatic, it will take some time. Let's give some time for verification. I can trace it back to the previous one. If you want, you can shut down the other link as well on the router, one interface at a time. We configure the direct route if I disable that link and goshow IP route static even to reach the three-door network. But it's not using the direct route because that link is down now; it's going via this route. Now, in this way, what we can do is add multiple static routes on the same route by using different administrative service values. So I just configured it on the router one.In my scenario, you can probably go to routers 2 and 3 and configure them to test the reachable tissues. But yeah, I'm not using that. Just the verification of the routes using the routing table So this way, we can have redundant links. So normally, this is something that is automatically done by the dynamic routing protocols. So that's the reason we normally prefer to use dynamic routing protocols rather than using static routes. But we just need to know an option where, for the same destination, if you have multiple static routes configured for providing the event, we can provide multiple static routes for agencies in small cycle networks in this way. Now, one of the major drawbacks with static routing is that it's only applicable for small networks where you have to manually configure the route for each and every destination. An administrator must clearly have a good understanding of how the networks are connected and how the devices are connected in order to ensure that you configure the proper routing information. As a result, any changes to the network will have an impact on the entire network. Because if I configure one route from this side and that route fails, the administrator must manually configure the alternate route, and it is also the administrator's responsibility to configure the routes. Now, there are some very basic advantages with static routing: there is no need for processing overhead because the routers don't send any advertisements, and there's no bandwidth utilisation for any kind of update. And also, it adds some security where the route has been preconfigured by the administrator. But if you just consider the disadvantages, there are a lot of disadvantages to static routing. That's the reason we always prefer to go with dynamic routing in the case of production networks, where it will automatically use the second best route if any one of the routes fails. We don't need to really go to each and every outer and configure the floating static routes, but that is an option you should know. The next thing we'll talk about is default routing. The default routing is used for routing your traffic to unknown destinations. That is the Internet. Assume I'm using a network in my land, and a user in my land is attempting to access a Yahoo server or a Gmail server, a service on the Internet, most likely our router. Or these users don't know where they are, but they will simply forward the packet to the gateway, and the gateway will simply forward the packet to the ISP, and the ISP will connect to the Internet, and then it will allow you to route your packets over the internet. So if you want to send any traffic to any unknown destinations, we can use default routing. And to configure the default routing, we can simply say "IP route zero zero," which means whatever the destination, then "zero zero," whatever the subnet mass, and the next hop IP address. Now, default routing helps in minimising the size of the routing table, and it's the last preferred route in the routing table. So by default, if you are using static default routes, you'll probably see them as asterisks, which are a representation of the default routing. And then you'll see "0" with a slash zero.Now default routing is something we can use in the case of ISP connections. Assume you have two ISP connections to ISPlinks in production and you're connecting to ISP one. And we are going to configure the default route normally by using this command: IP route zero zero, and the next stop is one two. So all the traffic destined for the internet will go through the router, and the router will send it to the ISP, and then it will reach the internet. But there might be cases where what happens if the link goes down or something at the ISP goes down—the link goes down or you're not able to reach the ISP—goes unresolved. So I want to make sure that my traffic is also automatically redirected by the ISP. So I need to have a backup link. Now, in this kind of scenario, we can also have some floating default routes where we can say that for any unknown destinations it has to go by one or two, and the default in this case will be one because it's a kind of static routing. And if that fails due to some reason, the router's routing table will automatically install a backup route from this one. Okay? So that's how we can use default routing in normal cases. So, if you want to test the same thing in the command line, we can just go ahead and configure an IP route here. I don't have a real ISP connection, so I can't do a complete practical verification on this. We can simply say zero zero and the next half. If I run show IProute static after you've added this, you'll see this astrid route installation routing table. Now if a user sitting in the lamb tries to trace, or if you try to ping the 170 216 network, which is not present, the packet will go to router two and then it will drop because, anyway, I don't have a real 7216 network present here, but any unknown package will be sent to the next router. That is, in our case, it will be the ISP router, and then the ISP will take care of your package to reach the respective service. Now, in this kind of scenario, we can also have a backup route where you can have two ISP connections and, by changing the administrative distance, we can use this as a primary link. And in case that primary link fails, it will automatically fall back on the secondary link, like in my scenario. I can also go to route to one command line and specify another default route IP route. I'm giving the next number as twelve zero two. So normally by default, I forgot to add that administer distance here, so let me shut down this interface for verification, which is zero by zero, and let's assume that the zero by zero interface goes down. I don't see both the routes because the reason isactually both interface are in shut down set here. That's the reason. So, if I use IP route static and make the interface a zero by oneup no shadow command, I should see that the interface must be up. Because both interfaces were in the shutdown state, the default route automatically goes via alternate route to get output once the interface is up. In my previous task, I made the interface zero by one. also on the closed street Right now, it is up. Now in my scenario, if your primary link fails, it'sgoing to use you can see that this one herefor the default route, the default will be one. It's going to install this route. If that interface returns, set the interface zero to the no shutdown state. And if I verify show IP routestatic now the interface is up. And if I verify show IP route staticnow you can see the default route. It automatically instals ten two, not twelve zero two. Now, in this way, what we can do is have some floating default routes if you're connecting to multiple ISP connections. Now, this is the more common place where we will be using something like setting default routes. But in case of static routing, we generally don'tuse it because in case of static routing wehave an alternate option of using dynamic routing calls.

OSPF Basics

1. KNowledge Pre-Requisite

Okay, the first thing we'll try to do is get into some prerequisite knowledge, like as we move on with our routing topics like OSPof and ISS, which are basically the IGP routing protocols. So I expect you to have some prerequisite knowledge of the CCN stuff, like knowing the connectivity part, like some of the basics of connectivity, and also the rules for assigning IP addresses. So we assume that we already know the connectivity part, and then the confirmation of the IP addresses on the interfaces and verifying the status of the interfaces by using the IP interface brief and making sure that the interfaces are up and running, and in the event that they are not, then basically we'll go and troubleshoot that. And also, I expected to know some basic routing stuff like, "What is routing?" So basically, routing is a method of sending a packet from one network to another network.So whenever you're trying to send a packet from one to two, so basically different networks, the packet goes to the router, and the router checks the routing table and forwards it to the next router. So we need to configure some routing concepts, and that's what we have seen generally in the basic routing. What you have learned in the CCNA and also, to some extent, what I expect you to know about static and default routing configurations (and, of course, we may not use static and default routing in our IGP topics mostly) and some overview of dynamic routing protocols why we use them. You may have learned these protocols or some OSPF protocol basic configurations, as well as other protocols used in the CCN studies, such as Rap EAGRP. Anyway, here we'll be getting into some basics.

2. OSPF – overview

So next thing, we'll talk about OSPF. OSPF stands for open, shortest path first. Now OSPF is one of the commonly used protocol apartfrom other protocols like in terms of service providers. Generally, you will see the OSPF or ISS protocols commonly used, whereas we have other IGP protocols like Rip and EHRP and also other protocols that are commonly used. Now, OSPF is one of the commonly used protocols, which is the main reason here. We can say it is like a standard protocol, which means you can run this protocol on any Cisco or non-Cisco devices. So whether you're running a Cisco router, a Juniper router, or another vendor router, you should be able to run this protocol and enable dynamic routing between them on any vendor. So in terms of category, it comes under the linkstore protocol, like the OSPF and ISS protocols; these two protocols come under the linkstore category. When we talk about other protocols, like the Rap or EHRP protocols, they come under the distance vector category. Of course, Cisco called this "advanced distance vector protocols." So basically, that's the way they work. This category now defines how they operate, and OSPF is a class routing protocol. Now classes routing protocol means as you know fromthe basics, you know, setting like the previous topicsprobably you have, you will see like when therouter, let's say I'm using 192, 1681, subnet 28. So, when the router advertises networks, it has the option of doing so without any mask, in which case it will simply advertise the network ID without submitting mask information. And that is what we call "classful networks." And the other option is that it will advertise the network ID with subnet mask information. So basically, that is what classes like intrudersnetworks will be using: all subnets, all subnetworks.And when you're advertising this with proper subnet mask information, that will give proper routing information as well. Okay, so basically the class list networkswill carry the supreme mask information andalso they support some VLSM designs whichwe use in today's production scenarios. Again, the OSP uses an algorithm called Shortest PathFirst algorithm or it's also called as text algorithm. We'll see this algorithm in terms of calculating the besttruth, how it is going to do that, we'll seethis later on as we progress with the topics. Another advantage of OSPF is that there is no limit for hop cons. Like if you're using some RIP protocol in dynamic routing, it has a maximum; it supports up to 15 hops, which means, including my router, you can have up to 15 hops. The 16th hop is unreachable, including my router, which is 16. And likewise, EHRP by default supports up to 100 hops or 100 routers, and at its maximum it can go up to 55. But in the case of OSPF, there's no limit. You can connect hundreds of routers or even thousands of routers; there is no specific limit for this routing protocol, and again, the metric is nothing but what exactly it will see to calculate the best route. Take, for example, this router to reach this specific network, whatever network it is, let's say 192.168.1. Now, to reach the subnet, there are multiple routes. You can either go via B, or you can go via C, or we can go via D. Now we must determine which route is the best, because the router will forward the packet from any route. So it has to figure out the best route. And that best root is calculated based on some values from the calculations. And typically, we call it a metric. The ripper will see how many hops it takes to reach that specific router, just as it will see the number of Hopkins. This is one hop from B to A, and two hops in store autos if you go from here. So Rip will see the Hopkins. But whereas OSPF will see something called "bandwidth," so it will see which route is having a better bandwidth, it will use that particular route, and there is a calculation for that. We'll talk about this calculation more in the OSP of metric topics later on. But this is a formula that it uses normally. So technically, we call it the metric. Metric means exactly what it will take to figure out the best route. Rap, for example, will see the number of hops, whereas OSPO will see the bandwidth in that specific path. And also there is somethingcalled administer distance is 115. Like every protocol has a default administered distance andthe default administer distance is and again admitted distance,we have seen that it is a trustworthiness ofthe information received by the router. And of course, OSPF also supports something called load balancing. Now, let's say there are three routes, and on this route, let's say the cost will again be discussed; what exactly the cost is is actually the metric. Let's say the cost on this route is ten, the cost on this route is ten, and the cost on this route is twenty. So the OSB will by default decide the best route based on the least cost, and let's say both are listed and both are the best. Then it will start sending the traffic from both sites, and that is what we call load balancing. If there are two routes and both routes have the same metric or cost.

3. OSPF - How it Works

So the next thing we'll try to understand is how OSPF works. Now, basically, OSPF's process is very lengthy. We'll try to get into more details as we progress. This is a high-level overview of how the OSPF works. The entire OSP process goes in three steps, three phases, as we can say. The first step is to establish the neighbour relationship. As an example, this is my topology, and in this topology, let's say I have a router. The router will now form a neighbour relationship with the neighbors. Like these two routers becomes neighbours first and theyestablish some neighbour relationship and they build some neighbortable and that is like the first step. Similarly, all routers will send some hollows to try to establish a neighbour relationship. We'll try to get into that more in detail in the later sections. As I said, this is a little bit of an overview of the entire process; what we are going to see next A little bit more detail Okay, so just like you got a new neighbor, you got a new friend, and probably you'll try to establish the neighbour relationship by sending some letters. And once we have established the neighbors, they will begin exchanging their own databases. So technically, we call them link-state link state database.That's what we call it, and exchanging the link-state database is nothing. But now these two neighbors, once they becomeneighbors they will exchange their own information, likewhatever the information they have, probably the routesthey will exchange with all. So they must send out their own LSS to neighbors. They will send this LSA that is linked to advertisements to its neighbors, such as this, and that router will forward it to the next router. Like that, it will go on. Okay, so once they advertise their own LLC to allthe neighbours and once they come to know then probablythey will based on this LS again they will figureout how many possible routes are there and based onthat they will decide anyone as the best route. Again, the best route iscalculated based on the metric. As I said, there is a separate formula for that. We'll talk about that in the metric section later on. And this best route will be installed in the routing table, and this best route will be used to forward the traffic. So this means all the traffic that is being forwarded will use this route as long as it is working. So if this route fails, then it will start forwarding from the second-best route automatically. So at the end, the main purpose of doing the routing is to forward the traffic from one network to another by choosing the best routes. And in order to decide the best route before that, there are some specific processes that happen here, like initially they must establish the neighbour relationship, and then they will exchange their own databases. And based on that database, they will figure out how many possible routes you have, how the network is connected, and some information on that.

4. OSPF Neighbors

So now let's see how this process exactly happens. So the first thing that will start is the OSP of neighbors becoming neighbors. the first step. Now this is your first step whenever you configure the OSP normally. So the OSPF process will start with something called hello messages. Now, by default, this is router one, and this is router two. Let's say these are the two routers that we have. And these two routers are like strangers. They don't know anything about each other. And whenever I configure the OSPF on this particular router, let's say again that the confirmation will also be seen later on. So let's assume that we have configured OSPF on this particular router. So it will start sending the "hellos," but not before sending the "hospitals." I've just confirmed OSPF on this side and have not configured anything on the other side. Now, basically, this stage is something like the downstage. Or maybe downstairs is a kind of initial neighbour relationship state where both the routers are complete strangers, which indicates that I'm not receiving any follows from the neighbor. May be Oscar is not configured, or maybe there issome problem with the link or whatever it is. Sometimes the neighbourhood is established, but the link has gone down. In that scenario, also, the neighbourhood will be downstairs. So the downstairs is like an initial process where the routers are like strangers. They don't know anything about each other—or maybe they have not received any hello packets from the other side. Now, once you configure the OSP, the process goes into the next stage called the "initialised stage." Now in the initialised stage, they exchangethe hello messages with each other. As an illustration, consider the routers one and two. Let's say we are trying to establish the neighbour relationship between these two routers. The router one is going to send out an "hello," saying, "Okay, hello, I'm so and so." It will send some sort of ID. We call it a routerid. Again, we'll talk about route riding in the next slide. So it says I'm so and so.This is my name. Generally the name is referred to as Outradi, and it's going to send out a hello saying that it sees no one. Is there anyone who is also running the OSPO? And these hello messages are sent to a dedicated multi-cache address. So by default, there are dedicated multi-cash addresses used, like 22400, five, and six, which are used for OSPF. Again, six is used in separate scenarios. We'll see that in the Dr. B. R. D. concepts. Like Eagerp, it employs the multicast auto command Soft 224 00:10. And 22400-9 is used by the Rap protocol (Ripversion 2 protocol). Like that. There is a dedicated multicast address used by each routing protocol. So initially, it is going to send out a hello saying that it sees no one. Basically, the hello says, and we're assuming here that we've configured the OSPF. And maybe OSPF is not configured on the router too. However, once you configure OSPF on this router 2, it will now listen for these hello messages. Now, these multi-cash addresses are like a dedicated address, which is returned only by those specific protocols, like all the OSPs of routers. So, if I have some OSP routers running, they all listen on this address: 22400 Five. So if the opposite router is not running OSP, then, basically, it will not listen to this hello message. In contrast to broadcast, if you know broadcast, broadcast is something that everyone listens to. But the multicast is like a selected group, and this address is reserved for multicast of the OSPF protocol. And when we configure the OSPF on this router, it will listen to the hello message and reply back with a hello. Again. Basically, the reply will come as a unique hash, and in that reply, it will include its ID, whatever the ID it is using. And the reply normally comes as a unicast. So this is what happens in the initialization stage. In simple words, we can say the router will exchange hello messages. So it sends a Hello, and you get to reply to that Hello packet in the next step. And once I get a reply, basically now we call this the initialised stage." And then they come to a two-way stage where both routers are neighbors, and now they become Neighbor Table. They establish something called a "neighbor table," and we can call them neighbors. Now, like I said, what is initial estate? Initial estate indicates that the Hello package has been received from the other router. And again, bidirectional commissions. Mostly, when the router is at the initialization stage, you need to understand that the bidirectional communication has not been established, which means it's not complete. Because once it completes, then it will move to the next stage called "waste." It's as if you could say the hello was sent but not received. But once you receive a reply to your hello messages, then we call this a two-way communication that has been established. Now the router will move on to the two-way stage, which means bilateral communication has been established between them. And of course, they do some Dr. Beta elections. Again, this is probably something we'll talk about more in the later sections. There is something called a designated router and a backup designated router. We'll see this in the more advanced topics later on. Okay, so "initialised stage" means where they are trying to send the hello messages. And when you say two-way, it means they have established a new relationship, and basically other things happen, like there are a few more points. On sendon multicast routers 24005, hello packets are always sent. And then the router sends "hello" on each and every interface. Assume I purchased this router, it is also connected to the LAN interface, and I have configured OSPF on this specific router. So basically, it is going to send out a hello message from each and every interface that is being advertised. Again, it depends upon the network statement, which we use inside the OSPF configuration. That means it is sending a hello by default, assuming the opposite router is also running OSPF and will respond. And in case if the opposite router is notrunning OSPF, and if it is not replying back,there is no neighbourhood established between these two andthere won't be any exchange of the routes. So basically, this is something you need to know while troubleshooting because you'll be doing some troubleshooting with OSPF as well. The first thing we'll try is to see if my router has established a neighbour relationship with my neighbor's router or not. So there's a specific command we use, show IP" or "show OSP of neighbor." We'll try to see that in the configuration part anyway, so we can verify that by using this command. Okay, so it sends out a Hello message for each and every interface advertised, expecting a reply from that. If it gets a reply, it goes to the two-way stage. The process here is similar to this one. The same thing that I explained in a little bit more detail is that initially the link comes up; that's the first step. And then the router is going to send out a hello. That's your next step. and it sends it out ready. And then the router 2 will listen to the hello message, and it is going to reply back with hello again. That is your third step. And then the router one is going to listen to the hollow of the router two, and then it will send back the hollow. So you can see here the router one isactually sending a hollow two times because first timewhen it is sending it didn't identify anyone. So basically, it is on a multicast auto and then this particular router has to listen and reply, and then it will reply back. As a result, it becomes bidirectional. If you remember, I said "two-way" meant bidirectional hello messages were being sent. And when this happens, then, basically, both routers will become neighbors. And one more thing you need to know: basically, they must be on the same subnet again. So, whatever the interface is connected to, if I assign it in a 10 dot subnet, the neighbourhood will not form. If I assign it in another subnet, the neighbourhood will form. So again, this is based on the basic IP rules, which we have learned in the basic IP robbing. Of course, the opposite interfaces should be on the same subnet. So once the router reaches the two waystages, then only the next stage will happen. So if you want to move to the next stage, the next stage is like exchanging the databases. That's what the second phase, or the next phase, is about. And that is only possible when both the neighbors have come to the two-way stage. So this is like the prerequisite stage. You have to finish before you move to the next stage. That is your exchange stage. There is one more thing we'll do. Even though I haven't shown you the configurations, it will quickly verify, but if you come back here, I have my routers preconfigured, and this is like preconfigured because I just want you to know a little bit about verification. So I'm not going to show you the configuration here because I'll show you how to configure the OSPF in detail later on in the sections. But here, I just want you to understand that the OSPF process has been established here. And if you go on router two and verify the neighborhood, we can use a command called "Show IPOs of Neighbor" to verify the neighborhood. And you can see the same thing here. If I go to my topology here, this is my topology, and this is the verification, the same output. Now again, you can see these are the router ideas of those individual routers and the stage. What is the stage exactly? Of course, priority values also apply. We'll see that And then what is the exact IP address of those specific interfaces? As an example, one neighbour has this IP and another neighbour has this IP, as well as which interface they are connected to. So when your neighbourhood status is finished, you will verify the neighbourhood using.

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