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We must learn about fault, event, record, and audit log in one dot three. Now, in an upcoming section, I will log into the epic, and I'll show you that inside the epic, you can go and see these faults, events, and audit logs. In this section, I'm going to cover the theoretical part. So now let's start. You can see that we have three types of notification. We have fault, event, and audit logs. Now, fault is something related to fabric. An event is any bad thing that happens in a network, and it will trigger an event. In Nexus, the CLI equivalent is show logs. Likewise, an audit log very much refers to who has accountability, how long someone was there, and how long something has happened, correct? As a result, we have F-E-A false events as well as an audit log. Now, let's understand each of these three pieces one by one. So, first of all, the fault is very important because in ACI now everything is object-oriented, correct? So we have managed objects, and inside managed objects, we have all the components, or all the objects. Consider what happens in Nexus if you assign a specific VLAN over the trunk interface without first creating that VLAN; it will not throw an error. But that's not the case in object-oriented programming, where your objects have the relationships, because obviously you're maintaining the database for all the objects and their connections. So what will happen in the case of ACIis? Let's suppose you haven't created the VLAN and then you're assigning the VLAN to a certain interface; it will create one fault alarm. You may believe that it will generate a single fault number. Now, with that fault number, you can go and check what the fault is, what the detail is, and what I have to do, and that's the capability we have in the Acique. So here you can see that we have two types of fault objects. One is the fault instance, which is something like a direct fault. So you have an object, and if anything happens to that major object, they will generate default incidents, but there is a possibility that you do not have a direct association with that object. So we can think of direct fault and indirect fault. direct fault is very much fault instance and indirectfault means the object is indirectly connected with thoseobjects where you have the fault. So that is a fault under fault delegation, where you have no direct relationship with the object and it generates the fault. In that case, the default delegate will create it; it's very much like the default instance. But this is for the indirect object; how we can verify this again during the verification or how you can see the faults and how you can go and take action are things that will be checked in the GUI. But here you can see that you can go to the dashboard. Inside the dashboard, you have the System tab. Once you're inside the system tab, then you can go and verify the fault. So here, you can see that you have a detailed explanation of what this fault is. Even the fault number is there. We used to copy that fault number and search it in Google to learn more about the fault and what the solution and resolution would be. And here you have the troubleshooting option as well, where you can go and check the troubleshooting option. And you can see at the bottom that you have the audit log as well. The good news is that Seatback provides an example resolution option as well as related information for that specific fault. Obviously, there is a flaw, and you should have some sort of retention policy in place. We have a fault clearing interval of 120 seconds. Then the retention interval is three six 0 secondand the soaking interval is one, two 0 second. Again, if you want to learn more and understand more about epic faults, events, and system messages, you can go and check this link. This is the Fault Management Guide. Great. So now what we can do next that we can go andlearn about list of two topics that is event and audit clock. The last thing about fault is that wehave the option that we can acknowledge. However, if you acknowledge as well and that particular fault is not resolved, Epic may still go ahead and raise that fault. So acknowledgement simply means that you know thatfault is there and then you're working forit and you have done the acknowledgement. But again unless you do 100% resolutionfor that fault, it will keep coming. Keep coming. Okay but we have the option that wecan acknowledge to the fault as well. Now next we have the events and the audit log. Here you can see that for events, we have objects. We have different types of objects related to events. Here you can see a few examples related to event and audit logs. Event record. That is an object for the event triple A MoD logs the report, and then the AAA session logs the report error and objects for login and log out.As a result, you have correct examples for the objects for events and audit log. Now either it's events, either it's the audit log again (as you can see here), or it's even the fault. Once you are in the system, you can see that this little snapshot is not great. But you can see that this is the system. Let me highlight here: this is the system. Then, inside the system, look for the second row here in blue. So you can see that you have the Fault option. Here I'm highlighting a fault, and then you can see that you have the events option here. And then you have the audit log. So that means from the system tab, you can go and verify the faults, events, and order dog.Now, once we are inside the events here, you can see that you have all the events, and then you can go and check the details about the event. So event code calls the creation, date, and description. Likewise, we can go and verify the audit log as well. So here you can see that we are inside the system, and then we can go and check the audit log. We have the ID, user, action, et cetera. The last piece in this section is the Hilton score. And we have a nice diagram related to Hilda score, even when you are logged in inside the Epic GUI. and inside the Epic GUI again, which I'll show you in the upcoming session. So once you are inside the Epic, you can see the system, and if you go scroll down, you have the health score related to, say, the pod, actually the node, the tiny, etc. For the time being, the Hilton score is a weighted measured entity rather than a single entity. So what does it mean? You can see in the diagram that you have a health score; maybe your health score is 80. So what does it mean that my health score is 80? That means it will check the state fault alert, drop the health score depending on the object, and mean if there is an issue, say I'm checking the tenant health score now, any issue within that tenant, maybe the bridge domain issue, maybe the application profile issue, maybe the endpoint group associated with that application profile issue. So whatever issues you have highlighted with that specific object, and then the health score will enter the picture, that will be the aggregate, that will be the small object below that specific object, and what will be the aggregate response or outcome for the smaller pieces inside that object? So you can see in the diagram that healthscore is in between zero to one ZeroZero. The health score is a measured and weighted value. And then it will go and checkdifferent interrelated object score and then youwill get the aggregated score correct? So you can see where it's going and check the latency remaining capacity, and then you'll have the value for the health score. As you can see, you may have a value for notes with a health score less than 99. Tenants with a health score less than 99 say we should have a 100% healthy score, which will be fully functional and will show in the green. So you can see that 98 is also Hildy—maybe some issue related to latency loss or some mismatch in associating objects from one place to another place.However, if your health score falls below 80 or falls below that level, the colour will turn red. So from green it will move to red because "red" means that a completely healthy score is not good, correct? So again, we can go to the dashboard and verify the health score as well. So from the single dashboard, once you are inside the dashboard and inside the system, you can go and check the health score. And once you're in the system, you can go and check the default events and audit log. And once you have this information, then obviously you can go for the resolution inside the fabric.
Now we reach Section 1, where we have to learn and understand about ACI fabric discovery. So what I'm going to do is have three upcoming videos related to the ACI bring-up process and the fabric discovery. So please go and watch these three videos, and then I will move to sections one, five, and six.
Let us discuss the ACI bringup process, and you'll see the various steps here while we are doing the ACI bring up.First of all, we should connect all these leaves and pick controllers. So all the equipment has been wrapped and stacked; all fabric links between the leaf and spine have been connected; all management and console connections have been made. So make sure that all the interfaces are connected properly. And what's the rule behind connecting these interfaces? They are connected like this. Epic should be dual-connected through So here you can see that I have Epic connected to a dual home through the Leaf switch, and they're using the 10 Gig interface. Now, it's very interesting that we have something called "infrastructure VLAN." For example, I will use 40 93.It is not recommended to use 4093, but in my ACI infrastructure, I'm using infra VLAN 4093, which should not overlap with the existing VLAN. So I'm not going to use this VLAN within any of the local or global scoped VLANs in the ACIinfra at the tunnel endpoint IP. We'll discuss more and more about the TEP addresses in the upcoming sections. We need to understand what the meaning of endpoint is and how, with the help of endpoint, the traffic is flowing from one tip to other tip.There is actually the VxLAN endpoint at the moment, which acts like a loopback address to the Leaf notes. As a result, I must mention step addresses here. Now this step address pool should not overlap the existing IP address pool, and that's true. So, if I give you the tipaddress pool, say, 16, you should not use these addresses inside the infrared. The same thing as for VLAN also applies to TIP addresses. We should give some unique subnets or the VLAN for these. Now the Epic discovers the IP address of the other Epic in the cluster using the LLDP-based discovery mechanism. So that's the other thing that we have to understand here. That's how this discovery process is happening. In the upcoming video, we'll discuss more about this. But what is happening in general? That Epic will discover the leaf, and then the leaf will discover the spine, and then this process will continue. Okay. All right, let's see what other mechanisms and theories are behind this. The Epic communicates with the Cisco ACI fabric through a VLAN that is associated with the tiny infrared. And for that, we are using an infrared VLAN; that's okay. At the time of the bring-up process, it will ask you what is your infra villain, what is your TP address, what is your UB address, what is your gateway, et cetera. Here in the diagram, you can see the sequence of the boot-up process. So far, they are using the LLDP process. Following that, you can see the DHCP discover request DHCP process in action. And then we have the HTTP process to get the firmware, and then we have the IFM management policies for policy elements. So first of all, they will discover the devices with LLDP mechanisms. The infrastructure VLAN number is used at the time of provisioning. Yes. While the booting up the system, it will askyou this VLAN is used for internal connectivity betweenthe Epic spine, Leaf and the switches. Yeah. So Epic will search for Leaf, then everything will be fine, and the process will continue. Cisco ACI uses layer three links in the fabric; inside the ACI fabric, I have Leaf, and it's fine. Obviously, here I have the fabric. They're using the L-three because all these are L-three links. inside the fabric. Everything is routable, fully managed by Cisco ACI. The traffic is carried over the infrastructure VLAN. So, if you want to extend, if you want to go outside of your fabric, you use infrared VLAN. And what's the example for this? The example for this is when you are using a virtual switch. So from your ACF fabric, you want to go outside, and at that time, you have to use the infrared. Actually, that's a very important point here. So suppose, on the other hand, if you have to deploy an ABS switch, what is the requirement? The requirement is that you are going to use the infra VLAN for AVS integration. So the infrastructure VLAN must be extended between the Leaf and the ABS software switch. That's correct. So I'm going to use the InfraVillain for my ABS integration. application virtual switch integration. Okay, let's cover other points as well. Cisco ACI fabric uses LLDP based and DHCPbased fabric discovery to automatically discover the fabricswitch notes, assign the TDP address and installthe firmware to the switches. That's the same diagram that we have seen here. So now you can mark that, in between Epic and the switch, what type of protocol has been used? So they are using LLDP, they are using DHCP, and then HTTP methods, and then they are pushing the policy with the IFM mechanism. Some of the things you can see,the two way means two way communication. We have epic switch as well as epic switch. LLDP DHCP, et cetera. However, IFM is one method by which EpicI pushes policy to the switches. All right, so now we are understanding more aboutthis ACI bring up and we need to highlightthese things while we are doing this study. So I can list out the number of important points while we are bringing up the fabric. Next point. The tip address pool is a critical part of configuration. You should choose a non-overlapping app event. Yes. So, for example, I chose ten 1000:16 TPP tenant endpoint addresses, as well as the Epic node's IP address. Then it asks to download the firmware through the HTTP get method. All right, that is also okay and straightforward. Let's carry on and see the last slide related to this. So what are the other things we have here? Epic r equate to ten gig. Nick Okay, we know this thing.We have set up the connectivity like this. These Nick should be connected to different leaf nodes for redundancy. So I have my Epic Controller, and I have connected. You can connect like this. All right. Epic connectivity is automatically configured for active backup teaming, which means that only one interface is active at the given time. You can verify, but do not modify this from the batch shell. So you can go to the batch shell. You can see who is active and who is the backup. Assuming that the infrared villain is 40-93, then what type of interfaces do we have? We have a bond-zero interface. This is the Nick bonding interface in the in-band connection to the Leaf switch. No IP address is assigned to this interface. So let's stop here. And in the next section, I will log into the Epic and show you all these interfaces, and then that will make sense. That is the type of interface we have while we are doing the bring-up process. So let's stop here.
Let us continue where we left off. So the type of bonds you have indicate the type of nicks and bonding they have. Assuming that the village ID is 40-93, the network work interfaces are as follows: First of all, I have a bond of zero. This is the Nick bonding interface for in-band band connection.It doesn't have an IP address. Then I have bought into my intrigue. This sub-interface connects to the Leaf switch. The VLAN ID is 40 93.During the initial bring-up process, we have to ensure that this interface obtains dynamic IP from the tip kennel endpoint addresses. All right? And apart from that, you'll find that we have, say, Bond 1. This is known as nick bonding. So if we have Nick bonding, then you will see Bond One for the OOB management. This has no IP address. Finally, we have the management out-of-band management IP to connect to the Epic. When you bring up the epic, you enter management. IP for UB management. So what are the things you are giving? Say, for example, you are giving the infra VLAN, you are giving the TEP pool, you are giving the OopManagement IP pool, you are giving the gateway, et cetera. So at that time, you have to give this IP address, and the Management Interface will take that IP address. So, let us log into the Epic OneController and check these things out. At least we can see most of the interfaces in our Epic Controller. So let me go here and first of all, let me type, say, "Acidieg" to read what this command will do. With the help of this command, you can see that whatever leaves you have, what is the serial number? What is the temporary address? So, in this case, I'm using pool, say, 100 eight. And then we have 32 addresses for all the leafs and the spines. So these are my tips that I can see here. And the fabric node vector read is the ACI diagnostic FNB. This command is actually very useful to get these addresses. Assume you want to SSH to any of the switch leads or spine leaves, you can go and give the IP, so for example, the username and the IP. Then you enter the password and you're in. Okay? So like that, we can do the SSX. Anyway, let's go and verify what type of interfaces we have. So I can go and check interface configuration when I can go and grip the interface. But let's see. So I can see here that I have interfaces, first of all, related to Epic interfaces. Epic e one, e three, and loopback zero However, we have the bond zero. So here you can see bond zero. I don't have an IP address. Then bond zero four; I have the T.E.P. address. Correct. That is one hundred zero one. That is assigned automatically by the fabric. Then I have 0 5, where I have this address, and then we have the loopback interface and the host IP or loopback IP for the system. So actually, the system that we have locked in at the moment is a simulator. This is the Epic simulator that you can download from the Cisco site and use, and you can go and check out a few of the reference interfaces we have. It's very much like what we have in production, but it's still a simulation where you can go and verify most of the things related to Epic or ACI infrastructure. Alright, so let's stop here, and the next section will tell you more about the hiring process.
ACI fabric discovery is a very simple process. Once everything is properly connected with the leaves and the Epic controller, you can turn on the first Epic controller and open the CMC with virtual KVM or the KVM we have, and then we must provide the initial question and answer things. So what are the things that it will ask you? Okay, I want to know the cluster information. So is it ACI fabric one, two, three likethat you can see, you can give the number. So suppose that this is a fabric of three. I can go and assign yeah, I havethree devices in the cluster so you cangive that then what is the controller ID? Okay, yes. What's the name? Epic one enter the temp address. As you can see, the default time is 100 00:16. If this overlaps with your internal IP, you can use 11 infra villan. Then it will ask you what the infra will be, and by default it will be 4094. So for example, in this case, we are using 3967. Then enter the address pool for BD multi cast.By default, if we go and enter it, it will take this default address. If you have any address we can put it. Then again it is asking about out of band management. So out of band IP for default address is this. If you want, you can change it. That's the gateway, and that's it. You must provide the password after providing all of these details. Once you give the password, then it will push all these configurations, and then it will reboot, meaning it will start the initialization. It will take approximately five minutes to do the initialization. Then what we need to do is go to the GUI itself. So you can see that the power is turned on. Then open the CMC, virtual KVM answer initial setup. Once you do this, then you can go to the browser, and then what will happen? You will find that it will start searching for and registering all the leaves and the spine. So it will start searching on the leaf and be fine. What we need to do there that we have to gothere and provide the name for those leaf and spines. So obviously you have the serial number and the name in your mind that you want to provide. So once my controller starts searching all the devices one by one, what will happen? Nodes are registered by the fabric administrator through a GUI or API. adding them into the fabric node vector database. The following details are required: serial number automatically detected node ID; it will begin with the first 100 node names unique to the fabric. So how does it look? Let me show you that. Once this discovery process starts, it will start populating all the serial numbers. What you have to do, you cango ahead and provide the names. So it will search. Is it a leaf or it says fine, means the rule, itwill search like spine is fine and leaf, leaf, et cetera. But you need to check that, okay, this is fine. What's the name? Obviously it will automatically, automaticallytake the TEP addresses. So it will take the Cape address, but as per the serial number, you have to put the host name as per your datasheet that you have. So, once you've completed all of this, it will automatically populate, search, and build the fabric based on the connection. So finally, by the end of the day, you will find that you have this list. And here you have the TP addresses, the role, what's the model?, and then you have given the name and the serial number that they automatically detect. Once your fabric is up and running within this fabric, the ISIS will be used as an IP reachability from the spine, and the leaves will be in between the spine and the leaves. So here you can see the ISIS is enabled in the infrastructure to discover routing, topology, and node reachability and has never been exposed externally, meaning this is something used internally. And if you want to verify the ISIS database, the ISIS hostname, and other ISIS-related things, you can go to the spine and leaves, and you can check that. So here you can see that like OSPFISIS, they have built the database, the routing table, the agency table, et cetera. So we can check these commands. All right, so now you can see that this fabric discovery process is very easy in ACI, even if you have ten notes or if you have 200 notes, it doesn't matter. This is the way that Cisco has built this ACI fabric, and the discovery process is fairly simple. And you can build your data center, means the basic stuff,means your fabric can be bringed up within hours if youhave even hundreds or more than hundreds of leads. and it's fine. So let me go and log into the URL that we have. So let me show you, once you discover all these devices, what they look like. So what we can do now is go to the fabric, and then inside the fabric, go to the inventory. Inside inventory, you can see that wehave options, that we can check thePod fabric, set up policy fabric membership,duplicate IP and disable interface and decommission. I can go inside the membership building. Here you can see that, okay, I have a serial number. Because this is the simulator, you can say "emulator" to learn the ACI fabric. The serial numbers are some nonrelated serial numbers. But in general, in your environment, in the productionenvironment, you'll see the serial numbers, those unique serialnumbers that will become with the devices. Normally, like in normal Cisco routers or normal Cisco switches, All right, so I can see here the serial number, the model, and then I have to go and give the name, like leaf One or Leaf two is fine. One is fine. Two, etc., etc. We can see the TP address. So this is the way that fabric can be built.
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