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LPI 010-160 Practice Test Questions, Exam Dumps
LPI 010-160 Linux Essentials Certificate Exam, version 1.6 exam dumps vce, practice test questions, study guide & video training course to study and pass quickly and easily. LPI 010-160 Linux Essentials Certificate Exam, version 1.6 exam dumps & practice test questions and answers. You need avanset vce exam simulator in order to study the LPI 010-160 certification exam dumps & LPI 010-160 practice test questions in vce format.
Let's talk about open source software. What exactly is it? Well, open source software is software that is released under a licence in which the copyright holder grants users the right to study it, change it, and distribute it to anyone for any purpose. As such, the source code—the human-readable core of the software—is actually available for inspection, modification, and enhancement. Open source software is usually developed in collaboration and in a public manner. And it's a good example of how open collaboration can be used to create some great products and services. In the early days of computing, programmers and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve in the field of computing. Eventually, the open source notion moved to the wayside as commercialization and software took over in the 1970s and 1980s. During this time and until today, academics and some developers still develop software collaboratively, though under an open source model. Now, because of this collaboration, software developers may want to publish their software with an open-source license, such as the GNU General Public License, or GPL, so anybody can develop the same software or understand its internal functioning. Now, scholars have pointed out several policy-based reasons for adopting open source software, including the heightened value proposition of going to an open source model. This is compared to most proprietary formats, especially in terms of security, affordability, transparency, interoperability, scalability, and localization. The Open Source Initiative is a public-benefit corporation that promotes the usage of open-source software. And they actually published a definition called the OpenSource Definition, or OSD. Now, the OSD is a document that determines whether a software licence can actually be labelled with the Open Source Certification mark. This mark serves as a distinctive label to show the attributes of a particular piece of software and how it complies with a general philosophy of open source.
So how much does open source software cost? Well, this is a tricky question to answerbecause open source software is generally freely availablefor downloading and therefore the cost to acquireit is very low or free. But like any software project, whether it's open source or proprietary, there are other costs you have to consider that can start adding up, like technical support, training, administration, or maintenance. Now, in the early days of computing, almost all software was produced by academics and corporate researchers who were collaborating together. They often shared software as "public domain." This meant that there was absolutely no ownership and no copyright, trademark, or patent. As such, software is generally distributed under the principles of openness and cooperation. It was not seen as a commodity that could be bought or sold for profit. This communal behaviour later became a central element in the so-called hacking culture. Now, in this term, hacking is actually a positive thing among open-source programmers, not the hackers you see in movies today. At this time, the source code, the human-readable form of that software, was generally distributed with the software's machine code. So you had the compiled version that was machine code and the text-based version that a human could read. Users frequently needed to modify the software themselves because it wouldn't run on different hardware or different operating systems without that modification. And they also were able to add new features and fix bugs in the code all by themselves. Now, long after the advent of computers, industry has started adopting the power of computing and advancing its technologies even further. As such, new hardware and software needed to be developed to meet this increasing demand. Now, this had a large cost to produce this software, and the growing software industry had to start competing with the hardware manufacturers because the hardware manufacturers were already bundling software with the hardware to increase revenues and keep up with the rising costs. In software development, a general trend started to occur where we no longer distributed source code openly, but instead we made it proprietary. One would need to acquire a licence in order to use the software legally and be able to get a copy of it for your system. However, there has been a resurgence in research and alternatives to lower the costs of using and maintaining computer systems. Once again, by resurrecting this idea of free open-source software, open-source software developers now had to look for ways to continue developing the software while allowing it to remain free. Some of these developers resorted to private funding, crowdfunding, or even accepting donations to keep their projects alive. Now, these donations were completely voluntary, and this allowed users to still download the software even if they didn't donate to the software.Some have even gone so far as to commercialise their software, which means forming alliances with other companies to display advertisements or install other software within their open source software. This allows them to fund their software development while still allowing end users to freely use their software. So you can see, there's always going to be somebody who has to pay for the software because it takes a lot of time and effort to build that software. Whether it's someone like Microsoft selling you a licence for a proprietary piece of commercial software or something like Linux, which is free and open and easily distributed, but you may have to pay for support or custom coding to be made for it, There's always going to be some kind of cost that you have to consider when you adopt the software.
In this lesson, I'm going to show you some desktop and server applications. The first one is going to be Libre Office. Now the first part of that is that we're going to use Libre Writer. Libre Writer is the equivalent of Microsoft Word. This is a word processor that will allow you to type up notes, reports, or anything else you need and then format it for your use. The next programme we're going to use is the spreadsheet program, and this is known as Libre Calc. Now, LibreCalc works just like Microsoft Excel. So if you're used to using that programme, this works extremely similarly to it. If you're on a Mac system, this would be like using numbers. The next programme we have is Libre Office Impress, which works like PowerPoint or Keynote. Next, let's open up a media player. We'll click on the Applications bar and type in VLC. VLC is a great media player that works across all operating systems. And so if you want to play a video on your Linux system, you can go ahead and simply open it in VLC. VLC can play pretty much any kind of audio or video file that you're going to throw at it, and it works really well. Next I'm going to show you a programme known as GIMP. GIMP is an image manipulation program, and it works like Adobe Photoshop. If you're a graphic designer, this is an excellent program. It works on Linux, Mac, or Windows. And it works very similarly to the way Photoshop works, including down to the filters. If you're used to using Photoshop, this is a great free alternative, and it works wonderfully on any Linux operating system. Next, we're going to use KD and LIVE. Katie and Live is a great video- and audio-editing program. So if you're trying to find something that will work like Adobe Premiere or Final Cut Pro, this is a good open source alternative. There are many other ones out there, like Open Shot, that also work great. Now, if you're just doing audio, probably the best audio editor out there is known as Audacity. Audacity is a free open-source, cross-platform tool that works on Linux, Windows, and Mac. If you're going to do something like create a podcast or an audiobook, or if you're in a band and you want to make your own CDs, Audacity is a great editor that will allow you to really get in depth with your music and your audio and clean it up and make it sound wonderful. Of course, we've already talked about web browsers, and of course you do have Firefox. You can also get Google Chrome, Opera, and many other browsers, depending on which one you like the best. So now that we've covered all these different desktop applications, let's talk about server applications. And these are going to be applications that you're going to use if you're a server administrator or a network administrator. The first one is Wireshark. Wireshark is a protocol analyzer. It allows you to connect your server to the network, turn on Wireshark, and capture all of the network traffic that's going across. This way, you can analyse it and figure out what's working and what's not. If you take my Network+ course, you'll learn about Wireshark there. Next we're going to talk about GParted. Now, GParted is a disc partition management tool, and this is a graphical user interface for one. Now, in GParted, you can see here that there is only a single hard drive in the system, which is the ten gigabyte virtual hard drive we've created. Now, if I wanted to shrink this down or expand it to a larger size, I can do that within GParted, and I can also add additional hard discs and format them from here. Next, we're going to look at timeshift. Now, Timeshift is a backup tool. It works very much like TimeMachine inside a Mac computer. It allows you to set up different times and backups for your system. And you can create restore points and then restore from them. This will allow you to go backwards or forwards in time using those snapshots. And so if you deleted a file or you broke your system, you can actually restore it to an earlier time period and be able to bring that system back to life. Again. This works like Time Machine inside of a Mac or like System Restore inside of a Windows machine. The next one we're going to talk about is Atom, and Adam is a text editor. Atom will allow you to create text documents, or if you're doing scripting or programming, this can be a very helpful tool for you if you're used to notepad or text editing or something like that. Atom is very much like that. Now, the great thing about Adam is that when you start doing things like coding and scripting in this way, it works very much like TextWrangler on a Windows or Mac system. and the last one we have is known as Putty. PuTTY is a terminal client. It's very useful when you're connecting over SSH to a remote server. Putty also works on Windows machines. And so if you're an assistant administrator on a Windows machine, you may be used to using Putty as well. Again, the specific use of all these tools is beyond the scope of this course. What we really want you to remember is that there is a tool for pretty much anything you can do on Windows or Mac within Linux. So if you're used to using Adobe Premiere on your Windows machine, you can go ahead and do something like Katie on Live. If you're used to using Photoshop on your Mac, you can go ahead and use something like GIMP here on Linux. All of these are great tools that you're going to be able to learn and play with as you go forward in the open source movement.
Now, let's talk about how we install software on Linux using package managers and software repositories. There is a wide variety of Linux distributions, and, because of this, there is also a wide variety of package managers. Each Linux distribution compiles its own software with its desired library versions and compilation options. Options for Linux applications generally won't run on every distribution. Instead, they're specific to the distribution you're using. Even if they could run every distribution, installation would be hindered by competing package formats and availability. If you locate a Linux application website, for example, you're likely going to see a variety of different download links for the different package formats and Linux distributions. Otherwise, if none is available for that specific distro, you're going to be informed to download the source code yourself and then compile it for your distribution. Now, unlike Windows users, Linux users normally won't download and install applications from different application websites. Instead, each Linux distribution hosts its own software repository. These repositories contain software packages specifically compiled for your version of Linux and its distro. For example, if you're using Ubuntu 12.4, the repositories you use will contain packages specifically compiled for Ubuntu 12.4, not for the latest version like 18 Four.Now, package managers will automatically download the appropriate packages from their configured software repository, then install them, configure them, and set them up for you. This is in contrast to installing software in a Windows or a Mac environment, where you have to click through a wizard or locate executable files on a certain website. When an update is released, your package manager will actually notice that and download the appropriate update as well. On Windows or Mac, each application has its own way to receive automatic updates. But in Linux, the package manager handles updates for every piece of installed software, as long as they were installed from within the software repository originally. Now, while Windows uses executable files known as "exe" and macOS uses DMG or "app" files for their installation, Linux has many different package formats. These packages are essentially the archives contain thelist of files that are needed for installation. The package manager will open up the archive and then install the files in the location that the package specifies. This package manager will remain aware of all the files that belong to each of the packages, and packages can also contain scripts that will run when the package is installed or removed. Some of our popular package formats within Linux are DED, RPM, and TAR files. Now, a dev file gets its name from Debian, and it's also used by Debian-based distros like Ubuntu. RPM originally stood for the Red Hat package manager, and it was used by RedHat, but now it's also used by Fedora and OpenSUSE. A tar package or tar file can end in a ta, r, TGZ, or tar GZ, and this is sometimes considered our universal package format. These are used by distributions like Slackware and Arch Linux. Now, while your Linux distribution ships with its own repositories that are preconfigured, you can also add other repositories to your system if you want. You can then install software from those repositories and receive updates for that software as well. For example, Ubuntu offers a wide variety of personal package archives, or PPAs. These contain software that is compiled by individual users and teams that has newer features that aren't in the official distributions. When it comes time to install new software on Linux, it's a little bit different than what you're used to on a Windows or a Mac machine. So for example, on a Windows machine, you might be familiar with going to something like the Windows Store, and from here you can search and figure out whatever game it is you want or whatever programme you want, and you'd be able to click on it and install it that way. Another way you'd install something is by going to the website of the software you want. For example, if you wanted to install VirtualBox like you did earlier in this course, you'd go to virtualbox.org, click on the download button, and then go to Windows Host and click on that. When you do that, you get a file known as an exe file. This is an executable file, and so if we open up this file, we can see it inside of our folder. We have this program, and we simply double-click it, and that will open it up and walk us through an installation programme that will install the piece of software onto our Windows machine. Now, on a Linux machine, it's a little bit different, and the reason is that every distribution has its own way of installing software. If you're using a distribution like Ubuntu, like I recommended, you have a really good appstore known as the Ubuntu Software Store. If you click on that, you'll be able to find whatever programmes you want, and you'll be able to install them. For example, let's say you're a music fan and you want to listen to Spotify. Well, just click on the magnifying glass, enter in Spotify, and hit Enter, and it will search and find Spotify for you. You can click on that, click on the Install button, and very simply, you're going to end up having your programme installed just like you'd want. This works very similar to something that you're used to on an iPhone or an Android device, in fact, because it's a very easy-to-use one-stop shop for installing software. Now the challenge is that if you're going to be installing a piece of software that doesn't exist within this software repository, or the store in this case, you're going to have to go and find those pieces of software and find the right one for your distribution. Let's go back and take a look at VirtualBox one more time. So if we go to virtualbox.org and we go back to the download area, you're going to notice that you have the Windows host, the OSX host, and the Linux distributions. Now, if I click on Linux distributions, we now have to figure out which version of Linux we're using so we can install that piece of software. Now, just because I'm using Ubuntu doesn't mean that I'm using the right Ubuntu. So I'm personally using 18.04 as my version of Ubuntu, so I'd have to download this file. But if you're using an older version, like 16 or 14, you'd have to use this one or this one. If you've chosen to use Debion, you'll use oneof these open source, one of these fedora, oneof these Oracle, one of these and if you'reusing anything else, you can use all distributions whereyou'll be able to download the source code andthen you'll have to compile it yourself. Now, that can be a lot of work. Now, if I'm going to use it for Ubuntu, though, I can simply click on here because I have one that is ready to go and prepackaged. Notice the file extension here is De B.This is a Debion package, which means that I can use the software installer, which understands this Debionfile format, to open it and then install that piece of software on my machine. In the next section of this course, we'll talk more about managing software packages and using things like the depths that I'm using here to be able to install a package, or using something like yum, pacman, tarballs, and all sorts of other things.
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