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AWS Certified SysOps Administrator - Associate Premium File: 209 Questions & Answers

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AWS Certified SysOps Administrator - Associate Training Course: 303 Video Lectures

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EC2 for SysOps

6. EC2 Shutdown Behavior & Termination Protection

Now let's talk about the shutdown behaviour of your easy two instances. So the question is, how should the instance react when the shutdown is done from within the operating system? so not within the console but within the OS. So, by default, it is stopped. That means that if you stop the operating system, then the EC-2 instance will stop as well. But you have a second option named "terminate." That means that if you have an EC2 instance running and you initiate a shutdown command from within, you have two options. First you stop these two instances, which is what we've seen so far. Number two is to terminate the instance—that means that it will be gone. So this is not applicable when shutting down the instance from the console. So if you stop instance by doing right click stopinstance is not going to terminate it, it's only whenyou initiate the shutdown from within the EC two instance. And the CLA attribute for this instance initiated shutdown behavior. which makes sense because the shutdown is initiated from within the instance. The second thing to know is that you can enable atermination protection on your instance. This is to protect against accidental termination within the console or the CLI. And so an example tip is that if you have an instance where the shutdown behaviour is terminate and you still enable termination protection, then if you shut down the EC2 instance from the OS, what will happen? Well, the instance will still be terminated because you haven't been doing this from the console, not from within the OS. Okay, so let's have a look at this behaviour in the console. So let's launch an instance. I have two Mi of type T, two Micro, and then I'm going to scroll down, and the shutdown behaviour I'm going to specify is terminate. So this means that when I shut down my instance by issuing a shutdown command, the issued instance is being terminated, and I will also tell you that if you enable termination protection, it will still be terminated. So, next at storage, add tags, configure securitygroup, select the SSH security group again, and then launch my instance. Okay, so as you can see, my instance now is in the pending state, and if I try to terminate it, the instance terminates. As we can see, we can click on terminate, but it says it failed to terminate the instance because there is a termination attribute. That means that there is a protection against thetermination of my instance and to do so thenwe need to do instance setting change termination protectionand then we could disable it and then wewould be able to terminate our instance. We will leave it enabled because right now we want termination protection turned on. OK, so my instance is now up and running, and I'm going to connect to it with easy to instanceconnect, and as you can see, the instance is right here, with termination protection enabled. OK, but what I'm going to do is just do the "pseudo shut down" command, which is going to shut down my EC2 instance. What's going to happen is that this EC-2 instance will shut down, and the IRS system will be notified of it. And because of the shutdown behavior, it should terminate my instance. So the shutdown has been initiated. And this took about a minute because the shutdown command had scheduled a shutdown for a minute from now. And now the incident is terminated because the shutdown behaviour was to terminate my instance, even though my instance had termination protection on. So that's it for this lecture. I hope to see you again in the next lecture.

7. Troubleshooting EC2 Launch Issues

So let's look at why an EC-two instance would have trouble being launched. So, if you get an instance limit exceeded error, that means that you have reached the maximum number of vCPUs per region. So when you launch an EC2 instance, it has a specific number of vCPUs, and there are limits for on-demand and spot instances for vCPUs. For example, if you use standard instances, then by default you'll have 64 V CPUs available to you. So the resolution in case you reach that limit is to launch the instance in different regions where the limits will be reset or to request AWS to increase your limits in the region. And just so you know, the vCPU-based limits only apply to instances running on demand and in Spot instances.So we can see this in two ways. First of all, if you go to limits onthe left hand side and then we looked forvCPU, we have two limits to look at. So the first one is this one, which is a standard SpotInstance request that is limited to 64 V CPUs. That means that once you reach that number, then we will have an error. And if you scroll down, there's a run on demand for all standards. So again, 64-bit CPUs. Okay. And in case you wanted to increase that limit, you could click on here to request a limit increase. There's also a way for you to calculate the vCPU limit using this calculator, but I won't go over it. And another way to look at it would be to describe the service quoted as "console," which is a very cool service. So you would go into the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud, Amazon EC2, and then you would look for "standard," the keyword "standard." And as you can see, all standard Spotinstance request has 64 limits and running ondemand as well as 64 limits. And if I click on it, we can have a look at what the value and the quota value are, and then we can request a quota increase. Now, how do we know how many VCPs get launched by each instance? Well, if we go and launch an instance and choose this one, as we can see based on the instance type, if we choose, for example, T-2 micro, we have one vCPU. But if we wanted to get a larger instance, for example, C-4-8xlarge, the number of vCPUs right here is specified as 36. So we would quickly reach that limit. Okay? Insufficient instance capacity is the second type of troubleshooting issue. So if you get this error, that means that AWS does not have enough capacity to meet demand in the particular AZ where the instance is launched. This is not a problem for you; this is a problem for AWS. As a result, there are several possible solutions to this error. For example. You can wait a few minutes before requesting again in case there is more capacity added to that particular AZ, or you can, for example. Request fewer instances at a time, for example. Say you're requesting ten instances in an AZ but it's not possible, then maybe break it down into smaller requests or make a request for a different instance type, for example. Something completely different, and as we can see, you can resize later. We can resize our instances, or obviously, please try to launch the request in a different AZ if that's something that is acceptable to you and finally.If the instance you launch terminates immediately, so it goes from pending to terminated, it could be one of several things: you've reached your EBS volume limits, so check this out; your EBS snapshot from which you're launching your instance is corrupt; the root EBS volume is encrypted, and you do not have permission to access the KMS key for decryption; or if it's an AMIinstance or backed AMI, it could be missing a part; Begin to remember all that I said to you, so the instance terminated the instance capacity and instance limit going into the exam, so that's it. I will see you in the next lecture.

8. Troubleshooting EC2 SSH Issues

Okay, so let's learn all the common issues around SSH for troubleshooting. The first one is that if you don't have the right permissions on your PM file, you're going to get an unprotected private key file error and have to fix it before being able to SSH. Also, you need to make sure that the username you provide when doing the SSH command is correct based on the OSU it's connecting to. Otherwise, you will get an error that will host keynote found," permission denied," or "connection closed" by the instance on port 22. And finally, if you get a connection timeout error via SSH, you know this is network related.So that means that your security group is not configured correctly. Or you need to check that the route table for the subnet is also not configured correctly. Maybe it's a knacko that is not configured correctly. So all these things are related to networking. Also, it's possible that the instance just doesn't have a public IPV4 address and, therefore, you can't reach it obviously.Or if your EC2 instance is doing a lot of work and is swamped and the CPU is maxed out at 100%, then the instance will sort of be unreachable and you will also get a connection timeout error. Okay, the second type of SSH, if you need to understand, is when using SSH versus EC2 two-instance connect. So we're going to do a little bit of a deeper dive into how easy it is to connect an instance. So the first one is that when you connect using SSH, we know we have a rule, and the user that has an IP that fits the inbound rule will be allowed to SSH onto your HTTP instance, and the user with a different IP will not be allowed to SSH. So this is something we already know. Things are a little different now for Easy2Connect. So your EC2 instance will have an inbound rule in which we allow a specific range of IP from AWS that corresponds to the EC2 instance connect range. So how do we get this range? We'll see this There's a JSON file available online that gives us data for a specific region. What is the IP prefix coming from the ECQ instance connect service? What does that mean? That means that a user with an IP that is completely different from that range For example, 1234 will be using the AWS API to use the EC2 two instance connect API. And then Easy to Instance Connect will be pushing a one-time SSH public key that is valid for 60 seconds onto our EC2 instance and connecting to it from this IP group that we have defined before. So this is why, when you use EC2 two-instance connect, you don't provide your SSH key. It actually pushes a one-time SSH public key onto your EC2 instance and connects directly to it. And we simply interface with the EC2 instance connect service directly. So let's have a look at all these cases in the hands on.So we have our EC-2 instance right here, and I'm going to complete the IPC4 and then launch an SSH command. So if we launch a SSH command with the right key pair and so on, we are able to log in to it because the SSH security group is open. Now if I change the permissions of my key pair file and try to run this command again, as we can see, we get a warning about an unprotected private key file. So this is not going to work. We need to first clear the revert permissions to 400 for my demo key pair file, and then you will be able to run the fetch command and log in. Okay, this is perfect. The second kind of issue is if we launch using the wrong username. So we're using right now easy to user becausewe're doing it into Amazon and X two butsay that we mistakenly think that it's Ubuntu. So we SSH to Ubuntu at the IP. Then, as we can see, we receive a response from the instance saying too many authentication failures, and then we're disconnected. The idea is that we are still accessing the instance over point 22, but then we are presenting the username Ubuntu and the key pair demo keypadPM, which is not a valid combination for my instance, and so we get an authentication error. So again, we need to make sure that we are using the correct username for your operating system, and this is something you can only know by having a look at the AMI you are into. The other thing is around security and timeouts. So right now we have port 22 open on my security group, but if I open my security group, edit the inbound rules, and for example, delete this rule and save it, And now that we're trying to SSH into my instance, we can see that we are timing out and this is not going to work. And if you wanted a restrictive kind of rule, you could edit the invalid rule, add a rule, and then you would do SSH from my IP and then save the rule. And now, if I try again, I'm able to connect into my EC2 instance. This brings us to the EC2 two-instance connect. So as we can see right now the pageas we can see the inbound role that isavailable is SSH port 22 from my IP. So one would think that if we do EP for two instances to connect, then it will work. But it turns out that if you do this, it will not work because the Cider range we need is not the one we have configured. So if we look at the documentation around configuration, we need to allow the SSH traffic coming from the list of IP ranges. So there is this IP address range right here that we can have a look at. And we need to look for the easy-to-instance connect block for my specific region. So let's open this IP address range. We click on download, and it's going to open the IP address range. And so we look at prefixes. And I'm going to just filter the JSON for easy instance connection. It'll be a little faster, and I'll extend everything, and this is something I'm only using in Firefox for this example. So this is why it's a little bit slow. Okay. And I'm going to look at the larvae. It's going to be even better. Okay, here we go. We're going to look for an easy way to connect an instance connect.Okay, as we can see now, we need to have a look at the instance connect IP range for the region we're in. And currently I am in the Frankfurtregion, which is EU central one. So we'll go in here, and I will look for the central one. So it's going to take a little bit oftime, but I think it was just right before. Here we go, the central one. And the service is easy to instance connect. And here's the IP prefix I need to enable in my security group for the EC2 instance connect service to work. So let's go back in here into my instance security group, and then I will edit the inbound rules. And so we'll remove this rule and insteadadd this specific Cider block which comes fromthis file we have just downloaded. So I clicked on save the rule, and now my source is correct. So it's going to be different, obviously, for you if you are in a different region. Then I'll test my access with EC2 instance connect, and voila. I am connected to my EC-2 instance. But of course, if I try to SSH directly into it, it's not going to work. So that's it. We've troubleshooted all of the SSH and connection issues for the ECU instance. I hope you liked it, and I'll see you in the next lecture.

9. [CCP/SAA/DVA] EC2 Instances Launch Types

We have seen that EC2 instances are virtual servers in the cloud, and so far we've been using OnDemand instances. So these were instances where we needed short workloads that had predictable pricing. But sometimes with servers, you know you're going to have them for a very long time, and you can get cost savings by saying that to AWS. So the first option is to use what's called a reserved instance. And a reserved instance needs to be used for a minimum of one year. So this is commitment, and you can use three types of reserved instances. The first one is simply called reserved instances. For longer workloads, think of a database. You'll have convertible reserved instances when you have flexible instances, so you want to change their types over time. Then you have scheduled reserve instances, for example, when you know you don't need it continuously for one year but you need it maybe every Thursday between three and 6:00 p.m. for one year. Then we have sporadic instances. They're going to have short workloads for cheap, but we can lose them; they're less reliable. And we're going to have a dedicated host where you want to book an entire physical server and control the instance placement. So why am I seeing all these things for you? Well, the exam is going to ask you questions and ask you to find the best kind of easy-to-instance purchasing option based on the case, obviously to bring the maximum amount of cost savings or to comply with some rules. So let's do a deep dive into each of those to make sure it's very clear. So the first one is easy to do on demand, where you pay for what you use. So if you have a Linux machine, you're going to be billed for each second that Linux machine is running after the first minute, and for all the other operating systems, most likely Windows, then you're going to be billed every hour your EC2 instance is running. So this is on-demand pricing. very typical of the cloud. With On Demand, you are exactly where the cloud should be. So it's expensive, but you have no upfront payments and no long-term commitment. You can terminate, stop, or restart them whenever you want. And these are recommended for short-term and uninterrupted workloads when you can predict how the application will behave. Okay. Next, we have reserved instances. So these will give you about 75% discounts compared to on-demand, and you have a reservation period. You can choose one year or three years. If you choose three years, then you're saying to AWS, Hey, I'm willing to book this instance for a longer period of time. So AWS will say OK; I will give you an even bigger discount. Now that we have the purchasing option, you can say no up front. So that means you pay monthly, partial up front, or all up front. With all that upfront, that means you're going to pay for your servers right now, today. And obviously, because you gave money to AWS today, they're very happy and they're going to give you an even bigger discount, but because it is reserved instances, you have to reserve a specific instance type. So for example, you have to say, "I want a T-2 micro or I want a C-5 X-large." These kinds of things. So these reserved instances are recommended if your application is going to be in a steady state of usage. So if you know you will need a database for the next three years, then reserving that instance will bring you huge cost savings. Now you have different flavours of reserved instances. There is the normal one that I just told you about, but you also have convertible reserved instances where you can change the EC-2 instance type over time. So you can do, for example, T 2 large, C 5 large, and R 5 4 X large; who knows? And this will give you a bit less of a discount because you can change the EC two-instance type, so up to 54% off. Then you have the scheduled, reserved instances. For example, if you just know you need to launch that simple instance within a specific time window that you reserve, So you need to have it just for a fraction of a day, a week, or a month, but you still need to commit far more than one to three years. I hope that makes sense. Next. We have spotted instances. So Spot instances are great because they can provide you the highest discount in AWS. It can be up to 90% cheaper compared to on-demand instances. But the peculiarity of the spot instances is that you can lose them at any point in time if the price you're willing to pay for them is less than the current spot price. So what this means is that the spot price changes over time, and you're saying what you're willing to pay as a maximum amount for these spot instances so you won't lose them. They're going to be, obviously, the most cost-efficient instances in AWS. But if you use them and need to use them for workloads, they're going to be resilient to failure. So what that means is that, for example, if you know you can lose your instance, you don't want to lose all your progress on your work if you lose that instance. So what types of workloads will be good for this? Well, batch jobs So data analysis once at a time, image processing So if you want to transform images, that's fine; if you somehow don't transform one, that's fine. You can retry any distributed workload later. So this is the cloud. So the servers can work together in a distributed fashion. And if one of these servers fails, the other ones will know how to react to that failure and still work together without the one that has been terminated. Or, for example, if you have a workload that has a flexible start and end time, A spot instance could be great, but one thing spot instances are really not great at is running a critical job or a database. Okay? Never ever do that. It would be disastrous. Finally, you have a dedicated host. So I'm going to read you the definition because I think it's the simplest. So an Amazon Dedicated Host is a physical server with easy-to-instance capacity, fully dedicated to your use. So we are renting an entire server in a data centre from AWS. Dedicated hosts can help you address compliance requirements and reduce costs by allowing you to use your existing server-bound software licenses. So I put it in bold: compliance requirements and server-bound software licenses, because these are keywords that can come up in the exam. Now these hosts are going to be allocated to your accounts for a three-year period of reservation. So you definitely need to be able to commit to them. They're going to be more expensive because you're getting a full server for yourself, and they're going to be extremely helpful if you have software that has a complicated licencing model or you bring your own license, or if you have strong regulatory or compliance needs and you want to make sure no other customers of AWS can use that server but you. And so, as you know, AWS shares all their servers with everyone. There is some security to ensure that you cannot see your neighbor's server. But sometimes, because of regulations or compliance needs, you need to make sure that you have the physical server to yourself. Now there's one last type of dedicated instance, which is called dedicated instances. And these are two easy instances running on hardware that's dedicated to you. And you may share the hardware with other instances in the same account, and you don't have any control over how the instance is placed. So what it means is that there is hardware dedicated to you, but you don't get access to that underlying hardware. So it's more of a soft version of "dedicated host." And I understand that this can be confusing. So as we can see on the right-hand side table, there is a difference between a dedicated instance and a dedicated host. So both allow you to use dedicated physical servers, okay? But with a dedicated host, you get per-host billing, whereas for dedicated instances, you get per-instance billing, and the dedicated host gives you a lot of access to the underlying hardware. So we get these nice server-bound licences that are available to be used on dedicated hosts because we have access to the socket cores and host ID and so on. When it comes to dedicated instances, the only thing it allows you to get is automatic instance placement. So a dedicated host is a lot more involved. This is more so when you have server-bound licenses. Dedicated instances: if you need some high-level regulatory compliance, you're saying that the hardware will not be shared with anyone else. Now, I don't think the exam will ask you the difference between a dedicated host and a dedicated instance, but it's still good to see it in this lecture. The exam will ask you to choose the right instance, and I want to compare it to a hotel just to maybe give a nice comparison. So on demand means that you can come and stay whenever you want and pay the full price. So you show up, and you get your room. But reserved. If you plan ahead and you want to stay in the hotel for a very, very long time, you're going to get a good discount because they know you're going to get a room for maybe one month. Spot instances are possible if you're a little sneaky. So you know that some hotel rooms at night are going to be empty, and you know the hotel is going to give you aggressive discounts because they want someone to stay in a hotel room, otherwise they lose that hotel room. Right? But it would be a weird hotel. But I must warn you that the hotel has the right to kick you out if they find someone who can pay more for your room than you can. So it would be a weird hotel. But hopefully that shows you what a typical spot would be like in a hotel. And finally, the dedicated host would need that. You would book the entire building of the resort for yourself because you don't have any neighbours for compliance requirements or because you have a survival license. I hope that makes sense. And finally, I'm not going to spend too much time on it, but in your own time you can look at the different price options based on spot-on-demand reserve instances. upfront, no, upfront, which shows you the types of discounts you can get based on different options. And to do so, I use an "M" for large in the region US East) to give you these prices. So that's it for this lecture. I hope that was helpful. This is something you definitely need to know going into the exam, and I will see you in the next lecture.

10. [SAA] Spot Instances & Spot Fleet

Okay, so let's do a deep dive on ECTU spot instances. So we know that with a spot instance, you can get a discount of up to 90% compared to on demand. That's a significant cost savings. And so how does that work? We define a maximum spot price that we're linked to pay for that spot instance, and then as long as the instance has a spot price that is less than the maximum price we are willing to pay, then we keep that instance. So, in the next slide, I'll show you the maximum spot price. But the hourly spot will vary based on offering capacity, and so it will go up and down. And if somehow the current spot price goes over the maximum price you have defined, then you have two options. And for these two options, you have a two-minute grace period. So that gives you a little bit of time to do these things. And the options can be either that you're stopping your instance, which means that you shut down everything you were doing, or that you're just stopping your instance. And so if one day the spot price goes below your max price, you can restart your instance and continue where you left it off, or if you don't need the date on your EC2 instance, you can just choose to terminate your instance and let it go. And then that would assume that anytime you restart your work, you can start with a fresh new EC-2 instance. So two strategies based on the type of workload you have,but you have a two minute period period to do. So the other strategy, if you don't want your spot instance to be reclaimed by AWS, is to use a spot block. And the spot block is when you block a spot instance for a specified time frame; this can be between one and six hours, and you get that block without any interruption, at least on paper because it's in the documentation, but it's really rare. In rare situations, the incident may be reclaimed. But overall, when you consider a spot block, assume that the instance will not be reclaimed. That's the whole purpose of the spot block. So when do we use spot instances where batch jobs or data analysis workloads are resolving to failures, and as I said, they're not great for critical jobs or databases? Now let's have a look at the spot instance pricing. So, this is a graph that I obtained directly from the AWS console. And as you can see here, this gives us the price for a large instance over three months in the spot zone. As you can see, there are six lines for us east ones, one for the region, and six availability zones. So six prices. So, as you can see, the spot prices vary based on the AZ you're considering. And so, as we can see, over the last three months, it has varied quite a bit. For example, if you look at the yellow line, it has varied between 0.4 and zero point 45, all the way down to almost zero point 35, let's say. And so on. And so let's assume that we are defining a user-defined maximum price to be this black horizontal bar with a dotted line, okay? And so what we see is that if the yellow line is above the dotted line, then the current spot price is going to be more than the max price we have defined. And so in this instance right here,we're going to lose our Spot instance. So we have to terminate it or stop it. But if the price goes down, so if the yellow line goes down on our dotted line, that means that we are willing to pay that price, and so we are gaining that Spot instance in the meantime. So this is how we can optimise the cost of our workload very easily. As you can see, the on-demand price is 0 points $10 per hour, so it's really cheap. Then there's the Spot instance price, which is even lower. It's around 0.4, I would say. In that case, the Spot instance pricing represents a 60% savings. So lots of savings And obviously, if you were to define your user-defined maximum price to be something like $0.5 per hour, then no Spot instances would be reclaimed because you'd always be willing to pay more than the actual Spot instance price. So no one can predict how the price changes over time. But as you can see, it can be rather stable. It can fluctuate a little bit, but overall, it still provides you huge savings compared to on demand.ou can see,Next, how do you terminate a Spot instance? So we have to first understand how a "spot request" works for this. Let's consider a spot request. So with the spot request, you are defining how many instances you want, your maximum price you're going to pay, the launch specification, the AMI, and so on. And when your request is valid from then on, it could be infinite, depending on the request type. And it's very important to understand that there are two types of requests you can make. one-time request for spot instances or a persistent request for post instances. So let's have a look at the difference. If it's a one-time request, as soon as your Spot Request is fulfilled, your instances are going to be launched, and then your Spot Request will go away because it was a one-time request type. So in this case, your Spot request is going to go away, and you're fine. However, if it is a persistent request type, we want this number of instances to be valid as long as the spot request is valid from to. That means that if somehow your instances do get stopped or interrupted based on the spot price, then your spotRequest will go back into action and, when things can be validated, will restart spot instances for you. So if somehow you stop a Spot instance in persistent mode and your Spot Request is still active, your Spot Request will automatically be smart enough to restart and launch an instance for you. And this is something you can also see in this diagram: I won't spend too much time on it. So what you understand from it is that if you want to cancel a spot request, it needs to be in the open state, the active state, or the disabled state. That means that, basically, it's not failed, it's not cancelled, and it's not closed. Okay? And when you want to cancel a spot request, if you take the spot request on the left-hand side and you cancel it, it's not going to terminate any instances that you have launched before. So it is still your responsibility to terminate these instances and not the responsibility of AWS. So as such, if you want to terminate Spot Instances for good and not have them relaunch, you first need to cancel the Spot Request, and then you need to terminate the associated Spot Instances. Because if you were to terminate the Spot Instances first, remember that it goes back into the Spot Request, and the Spot Request says, "Okay, you wanted six instances, but I can see you have zero right now; I'm going to launch six instances for you." So again, the right order to cancel and terminate Spot Instances is to first cancel the Spot Request to make sure that no new instances will be launched by AWS, and then you terminate the associated Spot Instances. And I'm spending a bit of time on this because this is something that can come up in the exam. Okay, next spot. Fleets. So this is the ultimate way to save money. So Spot Fleets will be a way for you to define how to get a set of spot instances and, optionally, on demand instances. That's why it's called a fleet. And the Spot Fleet will try its best to meet the target capacity with the price constraints you've defined. so it will launch from possible launch pools. So you can have different instance types and different OSes and availability zones. And so you're going to define multiple launch pools. So there are multiple instances of everything. And then the fleet will choose the best, most appropriate launch pool for you. And when your Spot Fleet either reaches your budget or reaches the capacity you wanted, then it will stop launching instances. And so you define a strategy to allocate spot instances in your spot fleet, and that's something to remember. The first one is the lowest price, and that's going to be the most popular one going into the exam, which is that the spot leads will launch instances from the pool that has the lowest price. and that gives you a lot of cost optimization. And this is a great option if you have a very short workload. You can also launch your Spot instances in a diversified manner, in which case the Spot instances will be distributed across all of the pools that you have defined, which is great for availability and long workloads because if one pool fails. Then your other pools are still active, and finally you have capacity optimised to launch with the optimal capacity based on the number of instances and choose the right pool for that. So the idea is that Spot feeds can be complicated, but what you have to remember is that using the Spot fleet, you're able to define multiple launch pools and multiple instance types, and so you're just interested in raw power. And then if you use the "lowest priced" strategy for spot fleets, they will automatically request the spot instances with the lowest price for us. And so Smart Fleet gives us an extra saving based on Spot instances because it's smart enough to choose the right Spot instance pool to allow us to get the maximum amount of savings, and this is the benefit of Spot Fleets. And again, you need to understand the difference between doing a very simple Spot instance request where you know exactly the type of instance you want and the AZ you want to use using the Spot fleet and saying, "Okay, you can choose all these instance types and all these AZ, and what I need from you is to give me the lowest price, for example, okay?" So that's hopefully giving you a lot of insight into how spot fleets and spot instances are different. I hope you enjoyed this lecture, and I will see you in the next lecture.

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