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PMI PMI-RMP Practice Test Questions, Exam Dumps

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PROJECT ENVIRONMENT

7. MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS

So the second factor of the organisational system is the management elements. Management elements are components that compromise the key functions or principles of general management within the organization. It's about the general management principles within the organization. General management elements are allocated within the organisation according to its governance framework and the organisation structure type selected. So what are the key functionsof management elements within the organization? First of all we have the authoritygiven to perform work paid fairly, towork perform unity of comments and direction,responsibility to perform work appropriately, general goalsof the organization, the optimal use ofresources within the organization, clear communication channels. We also have fair and equal treatment of people in the workplace, clear security of people's positions, the safety of people in the workplace, and we have many more examples. Performance of these management elements is assigned to selected individuals within the organization, and they may perform the noted functions within various organisation structures, which we are going to talk about in the coming lecture. Thank you so much. I will see you at the next lecture.

8. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE TYPES

Now we will talk about the third factor of the organisational system, which is the types of organisation structure types.Now the organisation structure type will dictate who the project manager goes to for help with resources, how communications must be handled within the organization, and other aspects of the project manager. So as a project manager now working with a real estate developer to whom I should refer if I need more resources for my project, it will depend on the organisational structure within my organisation or within my company. The organisational structure selection practise to be considered First of all, we have to determine the degree of alignment within the organization's objectives. Does this organisation structure align with organisational strategic objectives? A clear path for escalation of decisions, cost considerations, the responsibility assignment within the organization, the physical locations, and the clear communications of the organization So what are the organisation structure types? We have the functional matrix and project it, and for the matrix, we have the weak, balanced, and strong matrix. So we have three major types. For the organisation structures, we have the functional matrix and project type, and for the matrix, we have the weak, balanced, and strong matrix. So let's start with a functional organisation because that is the old style of organization. Therefore it's also known as thetraditional approach to organising businesses. As an example, the organisation might have a human resources department, a finance department, a marketing department, a design department, and a sales department. It's an organisation structure based on departments. This is why it's called functional. Here's an example of the functional organisation structure: we have the CEO, we have the vice president of human resources reporting to the CEO, and the vice president of finance reports to the CEO, and all the stuff is located within these departments. As a result, it is not the recommended organisational structure for projects. The company has a lot of projects. So for the functional organisation structure, again, it's the oldest; it's called the "traditional approach" to organising businesses. This type of organisation is set up to be hierarchical, with staff reporting to managers who report to vice presidents who report to the CEO. In other words, each employee reports to one manager. So for the functional organisation structure, each employee within the organisation will report to one manager only, and he or she is the functional manager or the department manager. This type of organisation has a strict chain of command. Roughly translated, let's have an example Don't talk to the big boss without first talking to your boss, who talks to their boss, who talks to the big boss. This is how it goes in the function organisation structure. If it were necessary for the marketing department to get input from the finance department on a project, the marketing manager should talk to the manager of finance to get the needed information and then pass it back down to the project team. So from this example, we will see that the communications in the functional organisation are complicated. People working in functional organisations can see a clear career path and then become very good in their specialty. This is the main advantage of having a functional organisational structure. People can follow a clear career path and gain more experience in their specialty projects. Undertaking a divided approach in functional organization, for example, the marketing department will work on its portion of the project and then hand it off to the manufacturing department to complete its part, and so on. So each department will complete its part of the project. So projects were run within these departments. The project manager serves primarily as a coordinator or expeditor and has little, if any, authority over the project. So in the functional organisation structure, we don't usually have the title of project manager. We have the project coordinator and the project expediter. Communications are complex, as per the example I just mentioned. The project manager's authority is little to none. As is customary in function organizations, the project manager's role is part-time, and the project manager will work on multiple projects. Resource availability is limited or nonexistent. The budget is totally managed by the function manager and not the project manager. Project management is part-time, which is completely opposite. We have the organisational structure for projectiles. It's almost the opposite of functional organization. familiar—very familiar—with construction and contracting companies. So, if you work in a construction company, you are most likely working with a projectile organisational structure. The focus of this type of organisation is the project itself. The idea is to develop loyalty to the project, not to the functional manager. While in the functional organisation structure, the loyalty will be to the functional manager or to the department, not to the project. Here is an example of the project-type organisational structure where all the project managers report to the CEO and the project managers have full authority in all the departments within their project. So the project itself is an organization. Organization resources are dedicated to the project. Project managers almost have always have ultimate authorityover the project in this structure and reportsdirectly to the CEO support functions such ashuman resources and accounting or report to theproject manager especially for large or huge projects. You will find accounting, human resources, marketing, design, and support for all the departments running within the project and having full release to the project managers. Teams are formed and often collocated, which means team members physically work at the same location. Members of the project team reported to the project manager rather than the department or functional managers, and so on. The project manager's authority is high. The project manager is full time.The resource availability is very high for the project manager. The project budget will be controlled by the project manager, and the project management staff will devote full time to the project. So the projectile organisation structure is very familiar with construction and contracting companies. Let's summarise the projected organisation structure. First of all, the project managers have high and ultimate authority over the project. The focus of the organisation is the project itself, not the departments. The organisation resources are focused on projectsand project board team members are colocated. Loyalties are formed toward the project, not the functional manager. Project teams are dissolved at the conclusion of the project. The major disadvantage of havinga projectile organisation structure. The team members will have no home to refer back to once the project is completed. The assignments of the project team members will be finished at the end of the project. Now the third type will have the matrix organisational structure. It came about to minimise the differences between and take advantage of the strengths and weaknesses of functional and projectile organizations. The project objectives are fulfilled and co-project management techniques are applied while maintaining hierarchical structure in the organization. Employees in Matex organisations often report to one functional manager and at least one project manager. So for the exam, you should know that the only organisation structure where the team members report to two bosses is the matrix organization. As usually, the team members will report to the project manager and function manager. Usually, function managers pick up the administration portion of the duties and assign employees to the projects, while the project managers are responsible for executing the project and giving out assignments based on the project activities. We have three types of matrix organisation structures. We have Week One, which is very similar to the functional organization. It's based on departments. as you can see from this example. We have the production, information, technology, marketing, finance, and human resources. The project manager title is replaced with a project coordinator or expeditor. We have a balanced matrix structure where we have a project manager but still run within a department. And we have the strong matrix organization, which is very close to the projectile. Where we have the project manager's manager and the project management specialty department. This table has the conclusions of all the organisational structures. We have the functional matrix and project type. In the functional maximum of the project size, the project manager has little or no authority. The function has little or no resource availability, while the project ties have high to almost total availability. The project budget will be under the control of the functional manager in a functional and weak matrix. It will be mixed in a balanced matrix and be under the control of the project manager and strong metrics and projectile organizations. The project manager role will be split between the functional matrix and the weak matrix. Time in the balance strong and the projectile organizations. I sure hope it's clear for you now. Keep moving forward. I will see you at the next lecture.

9. PROJECT MANAGEMENT OFFICE (PMO)

Hi and welcome back again. So what's? The PMO or the project management office? an organisational structure that standardised the project-related governance processes and facilitated the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques on all the projects within the organization. It's a department unit within the organisation and not a single person. As a result, you cannot manage a PMO unit within your organisation with a single individual. The responsibilities of the project management office can vary from providing project management support functions to the direct management of one or more projects, depending on the type of PMO used. And what are the PMO types are?We have supportive, controlling and directive. So where's the supportive PM? It provides policies, methodologies, templates, and lessons learned for managing projects within the organization. It's the one or it's the type of thePMO with the minimum control over the projects. The second type we have is the controlling PMO. It provides support and guidance in the organisation on how to manage projects, trains others in project management, assists with specific project management tools, and ensures compliance with the organization's practices. The type with the maximum authority and power is the Director PMO type, as it provides project managers for different projects and is responsible for the results of those projects. So these are the three types of the PMO. The one with the lowest level of control is the supportive, with a moderate level of control being the controlling, and the highest being the directive. Thank you so much. I'll see you at the next lecture.

10. PROJECT LIFE CYCLE

Hi and welcome back again. What is the project life cycle, and what are the major categories of the project lifecycles? First of all, a life cycle is a series of phases that a project passes through from its start to completion. The phases may be sequential, iterative, or overlapping. These are the three types of phases: sequential and sequence, iterators, and overlapping. So the project life cycle is a series of phases. A project's life cycle is what you need to do to do the work itself, while the project management process is what you need to do to manage the work. It's important to know what the difference is between the project lifecycle and the project management process. groups in the picture here, you can find the five process rooms that we are going to talk about in the coming sections: the initiating process, group planning, process group executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. These five processing groups should be applied to manage the project, regardless of the type of work being executed in the project. Construction information technology, web development, software applications Regardless of the type, these pilot management processing groups should be applied to manage the work, while the project lifecycle is what you need to do to do the work itself. So if I have, let's say, a web development project, we will have the web design, we will have the web coding, we will have the testing, and we will have going live. These are the project phases. So the project phases or the project life cycle are what you need to do to do the work, while the project management processing groupings are what you need to do to manage the work of the project. Project life cycles can be planet-driven or change driven.These are the two major categories we have: plan-driven or change driven.We will talk about them in detail. We said that the product life cycle is a series of phases. So what is a phase? It's a collection of logically related project activities that culminates in the completion of one or more deliverables. It's very clear that a project space is a collection of related project activities, and the project lifecycle is a series of phases. Phases or subcomponents are generally given names that indicate the type of work done within them. So let's assume we have a construction project. Phase number one of the project lifecycle will be the visibility study. Phase number two will be the design phase. Phase number three will be the construction. Phase number four will be the finish. Phase number five will be testing and commissioning. These are the five phases of a normal construction project. So the name given for each phase indicates the type of work done within the phase itself. Projects may vary in the size and amount of complexity they contain. But a typical project can be mapped into the following project lifecycle structure. These are the generic phases, which can be applied to any project in the world. The first one will be starting the project. The second phase will be organising and preparing the wall. The third phase will be carrying out the work, and the last phase will be closing the project. These four phases can be applied to any project, regardless of the type of work to be done. A generic life structure typically displays the following characteristics. First of all, cost and stopping levels are low at the start, increase as work is carried out, and drop as the project draws to a close. This is a general characteristic of the project life cycle. The second one will be that the risk is greatest at the start of the project. These factors decrease over the lifecycle of the project as decisions are reached and as problems are accepted. As you can see from this diagram, risk is at its peak during the project's start and will decrease as the project is progressing.The third characteristic is that the ability of the stakeholders to influence the final characteristics without significantly impacting cost and schedule will be highest at the start of the project and decrease as the project progresses toward completion. As the cost of changes will be the minimum for starting the project, it will increase as the project progresses. So the ability of the stakeholders to influence the final characteristics of the product without impacting cost and schedule will be highest at the start of the project. At this point in time, the cost of changes will be very low. As the project progresses, the cost of changes will be very high. I mentioned before that the project lifecycle can be plan-driven or change driven.A plan-driven lifecycle is used in predictive projects so that what's going on in the projects can be predicted before the projects start. This is why we call them predictive projects, sometimes referred to as waterfall or traditional life cycle projects. So planet-driven, predictive, waterfall, and traditional—these four names refer to the same lifecycle type. It requires scope, schedule, and cost to be determined in detail early in the life of the project before the work begins to produce the project labour build; any changes in the scope should be carefully managed. An example of the predictive project lifecycle in a construction project would be Keep in mind the construction project for a predictive project lifecycle before you start the excavation. Before you start the excavation of the work or the construction project, every detail will be known. A lot of details about the cost estimation, schedule estimation, and scope for all details are very clear. This is why we call it a predictive life cycle, and this is the type of project life cycle that the exam will focus on and the exam content will also be about. The changed driven lifecycle will be the second category. The first type of change-driven lifecycle and the most famous one will be the adaptive life cycle. At the beginning, the project is broadly defined; in the table, it will be broadly defined. The project's detailed scope is defined and approved before the start of an iteration. So an adaptive project lifecycle will contain iterations and have a group of iterations. Work is planned for short periods only. They involve fixed time and costs. A "change-driven lifecycle" or "agile lifecycle" involves a fixed time and cost for each iteration. For the exam, expect to see very few questions about the Agile life cycle. If you are interested in agile management, there is another professional certificate from the PMI, which is called the Agile Practitioner or Agile Certified Practitioner PMI ACP: An example of the Agile project lifecycle will be new software. The second type of the change-driven lifecycle will be the iterated project lifecycle. The project scope is generally determined early in the project lifecycle, but time and cost estimates are routinely modified while the project progresses. So usually, in the iterative lifecycle, the scope is determined but the time and cost estimates are routinely modified with the project's progress. Iterations develop the product through a series of repeated cycles. Research and development projects are an example of this type of project. The third type will be incremental. The deliverable is produced through a series of iterations that successfully add functionality within a specific time frame. This is the reason why it's called the incremental lifecycle. An example of this project lifecycle will be a website development project. The last type will be the hybrid, which is a combination of predictive and adaptive life cycles. Elements within the project that are well known or have fixed requirements follow a predictive development lifecycle, while elements that are still evolving follow an adaptive development lifecycle. This table shows the conclusions about the major differences. Let's talk about the change. In row three, for example, change is constrained as much as possible in predictive life cycles, and change should be managed carefully; changes should not be easy for a predictive life cycle. for an iterative or incremental method. Changes are incorporated at periodic intervals, while agile life cycle changes are incorporated in real time during delivery. The stakeholders are involved in a predictive life cycle at specific milestones in an iterative or incremental process; key stakeholders are regularly involved in the agile lifecycle, and key stakeholders are continuously involved. So what are the types of phases in an adaptive project lifecycle? Projects on the more adaptive side make use of two recurring patterns of project phase relationships. First of all, we have the sequential iteration-based phases. As shown here, they are sequential in order. Adaptive projects have all been decomposed into a sequence of phases called iterations. Each iteration utilises the relevant project management processes, so each circle shown in the diagram is an iteration. Sequential iterations mean that they are performed in sequence, and all the project management processing groups are performed within the iteration, starting with initiating, gating, planning and executing, closing, and all within monitoring and controlling. This is the first type, which is the sequential iteration-based based phases.The second type will be the continuous overlapping phases, where projects that are highly adapted will often perform all of the project management activities continuously throughout the project lifecycle. The intent is to aggressively refine and improve all elements of a project management plan. This is the diagram, which shows the overlapping phases. The first time will be a sequential The overlapping type will be the second type. the overlapping, thank you so much. I will see you at the next lecture.

11. PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE

Hi. Welcome back again. What's the product lifecycle? A product life cycle is a series of phases that represent the evolution of a product from its concept through delivery, growth, cost, maturity, maintenance, and retirement. So this is the product lifecycle. It will start with the concept of the product itself and last until the retirement of the product. A product lifecycle may consist of multiple project life cycles. After the project is complete, an evaluation of the product is performed within the product lifecycle to determine if any new project is needed to evolve the product. as shown in this diagram. We'll start by the concept till the retirement. And the product lifecycle itself may contain multiple project life cycles. Both views are essential because the concepts of products and projects are highly intertwined. Here is another diagram that shows that Project Number One can have Product Version Number One. Project number two can have product version number two, project N, and product version. And so the product lifecycle is a series of phases from the concept of the product until its retirement, and a product lifecycle might contain multiple project life cycles. This is what you need to know for the exams and for yourself socially so much.I will see you at the next clip.

12. COMMON VOCABULARY

Hello and welcome back again. So before we move to the next section, here are some terms we need to be aware of in order to proceed with the exam content. First of all, we have stated that stakeholders are any people or organisations whose interest may be positively or negatively affected by the product or its products. Any people, any organisation which might affector be affected by the project orthe project outcomes are stakeholders. People or groups who could exert positive or negative influence over the project but would not otherwise be considered part of the project are also considered stakeholders, as stakeholders can be external to the project or the organization. Also, they can be internal, either within the project or within the organization. For example, in my country, in order to build an OT, you need to have the civil defense's approval before you start building, or you must have the government's permit, so the government itself or the civil defence is considered a stakeholder for the product. Constraints are factors that restrict or dictate the actions of the project team and limit their options. What are the project constraints? We have seven constraints: the schedule, cost scope, quality, risk, resources, and customer satisfaction. So factors that might limit the projection options are considered constraints What is the objective, or what's an objective? A clear statement about what anactivity is meant to accomplish. Objectives are written to be smart: smart refers to specific, m refers to major apple, a refers to achievable, r to realistic, and D to time bound.A successful project meets all its stated objectives. What's the phase gate? It's held at the end of a phase—it's a go-no-go decision point. As you compare the project performance, the phase itself, and progress to the business documents such as the project business case, charter, and management plan, it's a go-no-go decision point. Either you decide to proceed with the project or to stop at this point. This is the Phase Gate. Phase gate can also be called phase review kill points, stagegate, phase and transfer, phase exit All these terms refer to the phase gate. What are the assumptions? Factors deemed to be true during the project planning process without proof of their validity are not available. Project assumptions can affect stress and outcomes, so you must consider them carefully. All the assumptions will be recorded at the Assumptions blog, and usually, assumptions are made during the planning phase of the project. What's an issue? It's anything that can cause problems for a project and particularly refers to major problems that cannot be tackled by the project team on their own, so only the problem cannot be tackled by the project team. It's called an issue, and we'll have an issue lock to keep the issue status or the status of all issues during the project's lifespan. Who is the sponsor? Is the person paying for the project? That's simple. The person or organisation paying for the project sponsor He or she may be internal or external to the company. In some organizations, the sponsor is called the project champion. What are the reasons discovered? The knowledge gained from projectforward can be used as a resource and starting point for future projects. You will also know about the system. The system, which is an output or a major output of the managed project knowledge process The OPM. Three is an important term. It's the organisational project management maturity model. Maturity is the extent to which an organization's method, processes, and decisions are standardised and optimized. A maturity model assesses one or more of these aspects against a set of external benchmarks to determine organizations' maturity. Maturity-level maturity models allow organisations to assess themselves according to management best practices. What's the project's success rate? Project success means delivering the product and the project within the set of boundaries of the project constraints, which are the scope, cost, schedule, resources, quality, and customer satisfaction. Who makes the project coordinator significantly weaker than a project manager? What are the differences between the project manager and the coordinator? This person may not be allowed to make budget decisions or overall project decisions. not like the project manager, but they may have some authoritative assigned resources. Usually, the project coordinator title will be found in a weak matrix organisation or a functional organization. The Project Expeditor is the weakest of the three project management roles. The three project management roles are project manager, coordinator, and expeditor. Expeditor is a staff assignment that has little to no austerity. The primary responsibility or the primary responsibility liesin making sure things arrive on time andthat tasks are completed on time. usually found in a functional organization. And this role may be only part-time in many organizations. These are the terms I wanted you to know before we go to the next section. Thank you so much. I will see you at the next lecture. Bye.

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