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My First App

4. Creating Objects & Tabs

We've set up the app ready for our new invoice object. And now we need to start creating that invoice object, creating an invoice lines object, and then kind of link them together, attach the fields we need to attach to those objects, link them up with our standard objects, and then kind of show it in our app. So, first and foremost, let's take a look at the fields in our invoiceExcel spreadsheet. So we've got invoice number, invoice date, company, individual status, tax, total, and invoice products. So the first thing I think about when I create the object structure is if it's coming from an Excel spreadsheet, I take a look at the fields and see how many objects are potentially involved in the spreadsheet and also what fields are in there, and then I kind of go on to what field types they're going to be. So we've got a handful of fields. We've got these invoice products. Now that it's plural, there could be multiple products, so that may be an object in itself. And then we have this invoice, the main invoice details, with the invoice day number, company, and things like that. So when this occurs, I dive to my whiteboard or blackboard, as the case may be, and I can write it out. So in the middle we have our invoice, which looks a bit like this invoice here. And then in the invoice, we could have a number of different fields. Now, first, my invoice number. Next will be the company that the invoice is for. Then we had a date, the invoice date, so I'm just going to shorthand it to the invoice date. Then we had a status, then we had an individual. Let's leave it at that for now. So there are a handful of fields. Then also, when we're looking at the spreadsheet, there were some invoice products. So I'm going to use that as a separate object. Sorry. So that will be, I'll put it over to one side over here, and that will be called an invoice for products. And then within there, I'm going to have a set of fields. Now the first one I'm going to have is Invoice, which is my relational field. Can I spell? No. which is going to be my relationship field for my invoice. And because we can have multiple invoice products on an invoice, it's going to have a one-to-many relationship. So for one invoice, I can have multiple invoice products. Then I could have the quantity of the product, the actual product name, or the product price on hand. Yes, and that sounds about right. We could actually do some fun stuff. Let's add in on this as well. It's another field called "total price" for the total for the invoice; we have tax as well, didn't we? So let's add tax onto that as well. Okay, but we've got these fields. Now this is where I kind of look at how the Canmy app can kind of link into the standard objects within Salesforce. Now there are two things that are really crying out here. It's the company field and the individual field. Companies are now accounts in salesforce. So I'm going to link that to my account object. So, up here, I'm going to have, and that will basically be an account name. We could have a billing address, and there are other fields that we can have on there as well. But I want to link my account to my company field. So that again is "one too many" because one account can have multiple invoices for it. And then we've got individuals. Individual is now a contact in salesforce. So I'm going to create a link contact for my individual field as well. And again, it's a one for many because I want to see all the invoices that that contact has had dealings with so I can see them within SalesForce. And again, the contact record will have a name field. The name of the contact might have a telephone number and stuff like that. But all these fields here are all standard objects, and then all my objects here are my custom objects that I'm going to create. Okay, so we need to create an invoice object and we need to create an invoice product object. Okay? So, if we scroll down on the left, Now we've got the customised section, which is all the standard objects for Salesforce. But I want to create a new object. Now this is all. It's very weird. It's kind of split up into two areas. All your custom objects are under "create or build custom objects," and all the standard objects are all in "customized." So I'm going to dive into objects, and now I can create my new object. So I'm going to click on "new custom object" and I'm going to call this invoice. The plural is invoices. And then I'm going to have a description. So always fill out the description field so people know what it is. Now this field is only shown to admins within Salesforce, not to your actual users. It's always kind of good to say what it is. So for sales invoices, I have a choice of either going to default Salesforce help or choosing a Visualforce page, which is a custom development within Salesforce. I'm going to keep that as the default, and then we have the label format of the object. So when I create a record in Salesforce, I have two options. One is that it can give it an automatic number every time I create a record in that object, or I can give it a name, and that name is essentially what links it to records within Salesforce. Now, the invoice name doesn't make much sense because everyone thinks it's some kind of unique identifier, like the invoice number is a unique kind of linking of records. So I'm going to change this to an autonumber and rename it invoice number. And then we've got a display format. So if I left it just on text, then basically every time an invoice gets created, you have to type in the name of the invoice, which, if you're linking it to a customer and account, kind of doesn't quite work. So I'm going to use the auto number. Then we have this display format. So the display format is basically saying if we go back to our spreadsheet, you can see we've got row one. That could be just a number that you have, but it's quite good to kind of prefix it with an identifier so that when users are searching for records in Salesforce, they can just type IMV 1 and jump straight to the invoice rather than typing 1, which could hit and find loads of different records. always the number one in it, which is a bit annoying. So I'm going to prefix this autonumber with IMV. I'm going to have a curly bracket. Make sure it's a curly bracket and not a straight bracket. And I'm going to close that curly bracket off, and I'm going to start my numbering from number one. And what this will essentially do is that every time you create a new record in Salesforce, Salesforce will increment this number, and every record will get a new incremented number. Then we have some optional features at the bottom. So the first one is to allow reports. That's definitely what I want to do. I want to allow users to report on these invoices. I want to allow activities against the invoice. So if I want to track why people haven't paid and that I've made a phone call to them to follow up on that invoice, then I want that to appear on the invoice page so people can see how I'm kind of working with this invoice to get it resolved, paid, or whatever. I'm going to enable track field history, which we'll have a look at a bit later on. Also, I'm going to allow invoices to be tagged within chatter groups so that I can pull in the conversation people into conversations to say, "Hey, why hasn't this been paid?" What we need to do anything more? I'm going to skip this section. It's kind of more for advanced features, but definitely just make sure they're all tipped. Then I'm just going to say yes. Allow this to be enabled in search so people can find records in search. And then we've got these one-time options at the bottom so we can add notes and attachments. related list of page layouts so I can add notes and attachments that could be quite useful. So I'm going to click that, and then you get the option to launch the new custom tab wizards straight after saving this object or this custom object. Now, I'm not going to click this, but you can if you want to, because when we create this object, it won't have a tap and you won't be able to get to it. But I'm going to do it a more manual way because you will have objects that you may want to add as a tab later on, even though you haven't created them yet. So I'm going to leave that unticked. So I click "Save" while I've created my object. Now, at the moment, we've got a couple of standard fields on here. I've got all my settings that I kind of set up when I created this custom object. And then I've got a section here for custom fields. You can see there I have my invoice number, and it's got the data type of an auto number. You can see that they got the standard fields created by," last modified by," and "owner." And the owner can be either a user or a queue. And that's about it. So all is very good. But as you'll see here, it isn't a tab. If I click the plus button andsearch for invoice, it just doesn't exist. So there's no way of getting to it. So this is where you need to create a tap. So I'm going to go back to the tap section. I'm going to go into this and create tabs. I'm just going to search for tabs, and now I'm in this tabs section. Now you can create a range of different tabs. You can create object tabs, which could be the invoice tab that we just created. We created a web tab. Now, a Web tab is really cool. So if you say you are using PayPal to process your payments for your invoices, we could create a tab called PayPal, which is a redirect to the PayPal site. And we've got digital force tabs as well as Lightning Pages, which is the new Salesforce UI. So I'm going to create a new Custom Object tab. Now, I'm going to call it an invoice. Now, the hardest thing of all is choosing the tab style. So let's have a look. something that's kind of relevant. Is there money? Honestly, this is the hardest part of creating it. I am going to pick out my word. What? Scales. There we go. scales that make sense. I'm going to leave the rest as defaults. And now we need to decide which profiles are going to be accessible via tab. You've got a couple of different options. You've got default on, default off, or the tab hidden. Now, this can be applied to all profiles or it can be applied to specific profiles. So defaulting on basically means I want it to be visible in the tab bar. Then we have default off, basically saying I want them to access it through the plus sign, but I don't really want it on the main bar. And then tab hidden is they cannot see it at all. Now, what I usually do is set my default to everybody first. If you want to do itdefault on for everybody, that's great. But if you want to be selective, I want to say the default for the majority of people is going to be on. Then I can click Apply a different tab's visibility for each profile, and it will set them all to default on because that's what I chose in the first drop-down menu. And then I can selectively say that, actually, for read-only people, I don't want them to see this tab. They can potentially still have access to it, but click Next. Next is which tab I want to include this in, or which app, basically. So I'm going to untick it and only put it in RadNet Studios because that invoice object is only valid for Ratmit Studios. And also, I'm going to append it to the user's existing customization voila.We now have this custom tab, and there it is on the tab box. And now we can get to our Invoices tab invoices. So I'm going to click that and if I click Newhey, there is no voice fields for us to fill out. So it's there, but there's no information in it. And now this is where you need to create some new fields.

5. Creating Fields

Created the object and put it on the tab. But you can see there are just no fields in there for the users to add information to it.So now we need to create some fields. So if I dive into my Salesforce.org, here I am in the setup, and I want to add a field. Now, first you need to understand: is it a standard object that I want to add a field to or is it a custom object because they're in two different places within Salesforce? So if we want to add a field to a standard object within Salesforce that comes prepackaged when we install Salesforce, then we need to go into the customised section under Build in the setup menu. And you can see that we have all of the standard objects here, and as you can see, they're very helpfully organized, not in alphabetical order; it's been a bit random, but say I wanted to add a field to the account object within Salesforce, I'd need to open up the Accounts section. And you'll see there's an option in here that says "Fields." So I can click in here and I can get through to the fields, and I can see all the standard fields for accounts and also some custom fields that have been created on my account object as well. and then from here I can create a new field. And that's pretty much the same for all the standard objects. You see, it's got fields for leads, campaigns, and cases as well, and some of them have more options in this menu than others. But we want to add fields to our custom object. So I'm going to close that menu down, and I'm going to go into the Create menu. And then within the Create menu, we have objects. And here is our one custom object, called Invoice. So I'm going to dive into that, and you can see that we got the main setup parameters that we did when we created the object. We have the standard fields that come with the object, and then we have the custom fields, of which we don't yet have any. When we compare this to, say, the Accountstab, we can see that the account options are actually more limited. So fields, validation rules, and all these kinds of options are essentially for a custom object all on one page. It kind of makes it a little easier in some ways. So with my custom object I've got custom fields, which is the same as fields going into fields. There is this section called validation rules, which again is the same as kind of going into this one here. I've got triggers. Again, it's an option here. So it's a bit different for me. This kind of got my head in a bit of a fuzz when I was learning Salesforce because it is in two different places, but it should be all quite straightforward once you get your head around it. So we want to create a field on our invoices. Now first, before we do anything else, let's take a look at all the different options that Salesforce has for different fields. So let's click "New" on here. And this basically allows us to select the data type, which is the type of field that we want to show to our users so they can enter information. So I'm going to pop up a little box on the right-hand side. Now this is basically what the field will look like to the user when they're entering information as I go through each of these fields. So the first field is the auto number. Now, we've kind of seen this already when we were creating the invoice object, and the auto number is essentially a field that every time somebody creates a record, Salesforce will increment a number in this field to kind of give it a unique code. So we kind of put in 0 as our auto number for our invoice object. We can also create additional ones on the object as well. Now for us it doesn't really help usso we're not going to use that. Then there were formula fields. Now, formula fields—I kind of think of them as being a bit like Excel formulas. So you're in your Excel spreadsheet in cell A, and you want to do a calculation with other fields that are on that record. So for us for the invoicing, it may be that when we come to doing invoice lines, we've got a quantity price and a unit price, and our formula field will just be quantity times the unit price, which gives a total price. So our formula field will be called "total price" and do that calculation. But also, it's a great way of pulling fields in from other objects, which will show a bit later on. Now roll up the summary field. We'll go into this a bit later on because it's kind of related to the relationship fields, which I'm not going to go into right at the moment.But the relationship fields essentially allow you to join the object to other objects in SalesForce. So I've got a video that goes through this in a bit more detail because the differences are kind of important to understand. But you've got basically three different types of relationships: a lookup relationship, a master-detail relationship, and an external lookup relationship. Then we have the checkbox field, which essentially is exactly that. It's basically a "true" or "false" checkbox. So if it's checked, it's true. If it's not checked, it's false. Pretty straightforward there wehave the currency fields. Now, a currency field essentially allows users to enter, say, a dollar amount, a pound amount, or whatever currency they're set to in their locale within their user settings. and you can also set the number of decimal places that you have. But one of the really important things you need to understand about currency fields in custom objects is that if I create a record and say that the value of the currency in the currency field is £100 because I've got the locale with a pound symbol, If you go and look at the record and you're in the US and you see a dollar symbol, Salesforce won't do a currency conversion. So if you look at it and you're using dollars, it will come up with $100. But if I look at it, it will look like £100. So really, a currency field just puts a currency symbol at the beginning of the field, but the value is going to be the same for everybody regardless of the currency you're looking at. Now, there are parts of Salesforce that do the currency conversion, but for custom objects, they won't. So it's an important thing to understand. Then we have the date field. Again, this is quite a cool way for a little date pickup to pop up, as you can see, and users can select a particular date. And again, this is driven by the locale of the user's settings. So if I put in the date January 2, 2017 for me in London, I'd have the format as "two 1217" because we do DAYmonth year.But then, if you're in America and you're using the US locale, it will swap the day and the month around so it will show it in your particular locale. So it's kind of nice for that. So it will convert the dates. Then we have the date time field, and again, this is driven by the locale as well. So you can choose the date, and you can set the time. But as you can see, the date field actually doesn't have a pickup for the time, so you have to kind of type it in manually so you don't need to use the picker for setting the date. You can always just delete whatever's in there, then type in the date again. The important thing to remember here is that any times will be determined by your time zone. So it will kind of show the correct time based on the time zone that you've set on your locale in Salesforce. So that's kind of cool. Then we have the email field. So the email field is quite cool because it kind of validates the email. It's just the format of it. So it just checks that there's something at the beginning, there's an at symbol, and there's something after it as well, but it's quite good. Also, it hyperlinks the email address. So if the user clicks the email on a record, it will fire off their email clients and they can send an email to them, which is quite cool, but it doesn't check to see if the email address exists—just that the format looks correct. Next we have the geolocation field. Now, this is a field to allow you to define a location for the object on the object. So it could be that you set a geolocation field on the contact to say where that contact is, or maybe on a user, or maybe where the company is. And this is kind of weird; it's not just one field. When you edit this field, as you can see, it shows two fields, and you've got two options. You can either show the degrees, minutes, and seconds, or you can show the decimal fields. So here you can see, you can enter the longitude and latitude of the location, and then when you save it, it just kind of looks like it's one field again. Next we have the number field. This is basically anything you want that's going to be showing a number. If you enter any letters or anything else, throw an error. It's got to have numbers in there, and you can set the number of decimal places. But one of the important things you need to understand is that it's going to remove any leading zeros at the beginning of your number. So if you say 0100 and hit Save, you're just going to get 100 instead. 10 zero. Then we have the percentage field. Now in the percentage field, again, you can have decimals set to it if you want to, or you can just have it as round numbers, but the user basically just types in ten, say, and then Salesforce adds the percentage sign at the end. So next we have the phone number. Now, this will automatically format the number. It's also useful if you have a telephone integration service so that the user can simply click the phone number link and their phone will start calling that person. So it's always kind of a good field to use. And also, if you want that zero at the beginning, you can't use the number field; you've got to use the phone field, otherwise, salesforce will drop that zero off. Next, we have the pick list. Now the picklist is essentially a drop-down list, so the user can select one option from the list and save it onto the record. Next we have the multi-select pick list. This is probably the most evil feature in Salesforce, I think, for the exam. It is, without a doubt, an option to use, and the pick list allows you to select multiple items in the pick list, as shown, and then add or remove them from the list on the left hand side. But it makes it hard to report on it on multiselect pick lists. So, if you're doing reporting, merging records together can be a little tricky. So there's a feature in Salesforce that allows you to merge records. Again, combining the pick list field is difficult. You can either pick one or the other, and generally nobody really uses it. So I've avoided, and if you do, you kind of run into problems. So I definitely avoid using it in real life, but for the exam, it exists and it is a field to use. Also, you can't update it through workflow and stuff like that, which is a bit of a pain as well. Next we have the text field. Now the text field is essentially one single line of text that a user can enter in; it can be anything, text numbers, whatever, but is limited to 255 characters, and you can set how many characters you want the user to type in. So, as you can see here, I'm typing away, and when I reach the limit, Salesforce just doesn't allow me to add any more characters into it. So yeah, that's a good field. But if you want a multi-line textfield, then the text area is your bet. Again, it's still limited to 255 characters. Basically, it shows three lines of text, so you can't alter the number of lines, but it's more of a kind of paragraph of text than just a single line. But again, it's still limited to 255 characters. Okay, so next we have the text area long field.Now this is similar to the text area field, but the difference is that you can adjust the number of lines that you have in it. So, with the text area set to three lines, but the text area being long, you can add five or ten lines. You can also get a lot more characters in it. So you can get 131,072 characters in this field, which is a load more. So I generally use this most of the time rather than the text area. And then the rich text area is kind of cool. Basically, you can set the text to bold, italic, or underline it. The only thing with the Rich Text Field is that the minimum number of lines that you can have visible is ten lines. And then we have the text-encrypted field. Now this is actually a quite cool field because it's PCI compliant, which basically means you're allowed to store credit card information in this text field. Now obviously, please check with your bank and things like that to make sure it is fully compliant with them. But essentially, this is a great way to store data that you don't necessarily want to show to everybody. So one of them is, as I'm showing here, the credit card one. So basically, you've got a choice of how you start out. It could be similar to Xs or, in this case, stars. Also, it's kind of just like, even though I've entered in a full credit card number, all that the users can see is these last four digits. So they can basically verify credit cards and check that the credit card is right, but they can't get the full number. But then, if you do want users to see the full number, you can set that in their profile. So you can basically say that for these specific users, they can see the full credit card number, but for everybody else, they get this starred-out value. But Salesforce calls this classic encryption. There is a new type of encryption called Shield, which has other encryption, but it's not part of the admin course. You shouldn't need to know about that. Then we have the URL field, which is exactly as it sounds. You basically put a website address in there, and if you do, it basically creates a hyperlink so users can click it, and it just dives straight off to that site. Okay, so let's create some fields. So first we need to dive into our spreadsheet. So we've got the invoice number. Now we've done that already. So that's when we created the object. We had the choice between using a text field or an incremental number field. So we chose the incrementalnumber field that was created. Next we have the invoice date. So I'm going to use the date field because that makes sense. You could, of course, use the date and time. It doesn't quite make sense if you want to, but "Date" sounds good to me. So I'm going to click next, and I'm going to give it a name. So this is the invoice date. Then we have the description field. Now the Description field is only visible to administrators within your.org If there's any specific information that you want administrators to know about this field, like do not delete it or something like that, you can put it in there, and then the help text is basically for everybody else. So all your users should roll over this little question mark and get a bit of help with it. So I'm going to put in here the date on which the invoice was created in our invoice system. because the invoice was potentially created outside of an accounting system. And I just want the user to double-check that they have the correct date because it may not be the same as the record's creation date. So that's good. Now, is it a required field? Yes. I'm going to say that every invoice in here has to have an invoice date, and this will be the same for absolutely everybody. So everybody, if they create a record, has to enter an invoice date. But what I'm going to do is create a little formula. So this basically sets the default value, and as you can see, it's kind of giving you some hints of what you could put in this field. But I'm going to use this function today function.So this is basically saying that when the records are created on the page, I want to show today's date because that's probably the date on which they've entered it into the system. You can also kind of do plus two, so it'll say today's date plus two days. and that is the value that's going to go into that. But I'm just going to keep it as is today, and we'll see that when we create the record. So I'm going next to that. Then you've got field-level security. This is saying who should have access to this field. Now I set it as a required field, which basically means everybody's got to see it because if they've got access to the object, then they've got to be able to put a date in this field. So it can't be read only, either. But we'll go into more detail about the security later on. So I'm going to click Next on that. Next we have the page and layouts. Now we're going to talk about this a bit later on, but it's essentially saying which page layout you want to show this field on. At the moment we only have one page layout, so we're just going to put it on this page. So I'm going to keep that as the default. And again, I can't choose anything else. It's got to go on this page now because it's a required field. And then you've got two choices. You can either click Save, which goes back to the object page so you can see, or you can add another field from there. Or you can do a Save As New, which will save this field and create a new one. So I'm going to do "Save a New" because it's quick and it goes straight back to creating a new field and choosing the next one. So we've set the invoice date. Now these company and individual fields are relationship fields because we want to relate these fields to other data within Salesforce. So I'm going to do that a bit later on. Next up is our status field. Now, looking down this field, it looks like it's just got a couple of different options. So I'm just going to check that by switching this filter on. Oh, it's already on. And just by clicking this down arrow, you can see all the different combinations. And I can see here that draught invoiced, overdue, and paid." So based on that information, which field do you think it should be? Think about it. Do you know which one it should be? Okay, so we've got a couple of choices. We could say a pick list, a text field because it's information they'll type in, or, essentially, a multi-select pick list. A multi-select pick list doesn't make sense because there's only one value for each of these. It's either draught invoice, overdue or paid. So that makes sense: a text field. Yes, they could type in "paid." They could type in invoiced or overdue, but they could type it in incorrectly, and then that will affect reporting and things like that. So the ideal field for this is the pick list field. So I'm going to select the pick list. I'm going to say that this is status. And now we've got two options. We can either choose a global pick list set or we can enter the values for this field specifically. So now it's a question of, okay, are we going to use these statuses anywhere else in Salesforce? And I'm thinking probably not because it's really specific to invoices and invoice statuses. So I'm going to click this. But if we had created a global pick list, you could select it in here, and you can get to global pick lists by just pick list value sets" here, and then you can define your set of values and then use it in here. But we're not going to do that. We're going to just go enter our values. So I'm going to select all the options. As a result, the draught was invoiced, overdue, and paid. So now we've got a couple of options. We can automatically sort the list alphabetically. I'm actually not going to do that because I'm doing it based on the flow of the statuses. So it goes from draught to invoice to potentially overdue to paid. So I'm not going to sort them. I am going to say that the first value is the default value. So when you create it, it automatically says Draft. And I am going to restrict the picklist to the values defined in the set. Now, this doesn't really affect the users so much; it's more for integrations. So if I have that unset, the users are still restricted to the values in the pick list. But an integration could come in and add a different value here. So it's kind of one of those fields. If you're not sure if an integration is pushing invoices in and if all of these values are correct, you can unpick this. And then as new values appear, you kind of can addthem into the pick list or you can say restrict. But you could potentially have an issue where a system is trying to create an invoice, push an invoice into Salesforce, and Salesforce will throw an error and not allow it to be entered because it doesn't match any of these values. But for now, I'm going to leave it as restrict, and then I'm going to put the help text in because that's really helpful for the user. So I'm going to say the current status of the invoice. Now I've kind of set a default for the field. So I'm actually not going to click therequired because every time somebody creates the fieldit's going to set that default anyway. So I'm going to click next. And as you can see, because I haven't set that as a required field, I can now choose which profiles either get it read only or see the field as visible, and they can change it as well. So you can see my read-only solution. Everybody can see it; it's visible except for some of these partner profiles. Now the partner profiles are used in communities, which we'll get to a bit later on. That's why they're off, and they don't have access to this object. But I'm just going to say, "Yes, that looks good except for, say, my work only user." I'm going to make it only for them to read. So that's good. and then click next. And again, I can choose which page layouts to put in. We'll go into this a bit later. But essentially, we've only got one, and we want to show this field to the users. And then let's get back to the spreadsheet. What else do we get? So now we have tax and total. I'm going to skip these out as well because we're going to use some other funky fields for that. And finally, we have Notes. So I'm going to save a new one, and then we'll have Notes. So now what field are we going to use for notes? Think about it. Pause the video if you need to. I'm going to give you the answer. And the answer is, well, again, we could use a couple of different ones. So we could use just the textline, but it's limited to 255 characters. Again, we could use the text area, but again, it's limited to 255 characters. text area is long. Yeah, we can put a load of text in there, but it's just text. So if we want to make things bold in Italian, we'll need to use the rich text area box. But then it's kind of a personal preference. Do you want to allow users to make things bold and italic and then insert images as well? Or do you just want to make it just a plain old text box? They just put information in. Now I'm going to use a richtext box because they're kind of cool. So I'm going to use that andI'm just going to call this Notes. And here you can see the limit I mentioned earlier, the number, or amount of text you can have on an object. So you can see here that we're actually not using any of our allocated characters on this object. And we can have a maximum of 131,072 characters for this specific field. I'm going to leave it at 32,000. If my users do shout and go, I need to add more in here; then I can increase it, but I think 32,000 is enough for them. Then we get the number of visible lines. So if I set it to nine under ten and try and click Next, sales are going to throw an error saying, "No, you've got to put a value in here and it's got to be over ten." Now that you leave it blank as well, it's going to throw an error because we've got this red bar, which basically says this is a required value that we need to enter in. So I'm going to give it 20, and then finally, I'm going to have some help text because it's always helpful for users, which is any notes you wish to enter about this invoice. and then click next. And again, we've got the visibility now; as it's a notes field, I may want to restrict this to just financial people or financial controllers, so I could set it as read only for everybody except for those people. But I'm going to keep it as the default. So click Next again. I want to show this field to everybody, so I'm going to leave it on the page, but this time I'm going to click Save. And now I'm back to the invoice. I've created those fields. As you can see here, you can see what the data types are. You can also see this API name. So this is used for integrations. After that, you got your label name. So actually, you can duplicate the label name. So you can actually have two label names with the same name. So we could create another field called Invoice Date, and Salesforce won't complain about that, but it will complain if the API name is the same. So the API name needs to be unique, but the field label can be the same as other fields. But it could get really confusing for your users. But there are certain reasons why you want to do that.

6. Field Dependences

I just want to talk about field dependencies because they're kind of cool. Now first, I'll show you what they look like before we actually get on to creating one. So I've just created basically three pick lists: a country, a region, and a key. And the whole point about dependent fields is that the first field in the dependency list controls what the next field is going to show in it. So for example, with these country, region, and city pick lists, I can say pick a country as the first value, and that will affect the next pick list down, which will filter out and show only the regions that are in that country. So for example, if I double click on the first value, it pops up all the dependent fields. So the first field is always called the controlling field. So I'm going to select the United Kingdom. From the controlling field, you can see that these are inactive, so I can't select them. So I basically select the United Kingdom, and that makes the next field active. So this is the dependent field in this controlling field country. So based on the region, I'm going to select England, and that again activates the next field down, which filters the values in there to just the cities in England. So I can pick, say, London and click OK. And now I can save that record. And now we've got kind of a validated dependency list here, and then I can come back and basically change these values to something else. So I could say, "Try the United States," or "Pick another region, for example," which will filter it down and I can change the values in it, but it's kind of cool. But there are certain kinds of little complexities around it, which I'm just going to show you now. And that is the different data types youcan have within these controlling and dependent picklistsare standard Pick lists, custom Pick lists, multiselect Pick Lists and a checkbox. But if I show you this, this kind of gives youan idea of when you can use these different fields. So it's a standard picklist. So these are the pick lists that are already in your salesforce.org account. When you first create Salesforce, they can only control fields. So you can't have a standard pick list and have one of your custom pick lists above it in that kind of dependency list. So they have to be the first ones. Custom pick lists—it doesn't matter. They can either be the controlling pick list or a dependent pick list. Multi select again, why would you ever use it? But yes, if you did want to use it, it can't be the controlling pick list; it can only be a dependent pick list. And then finally check the box; this kind of makes a bit more sense. It can only be holding. So you click the check box, which then activates the picklist below. So let's go into SalesForce and actually create a pick list. Okay, so I'm on the invoice object, and I have the status field, which has the values of Draft, Invoiced, Overdue, and Paid. But what I want to do is create a substitute for these because I want to make up for the lateness of the draught and overdue.So I'm going to dive back, and I can create a new field. So my new field is going to be another Picklist field, and it's going to be called substatus. Now this is going to be the local values onthis pick list and I'm going to for my draft,I'm going to say In Review and then I'm goingto have for my overdue pick list, I'm going tosay Contacted once, acted twice, pending, going to Legal. Okay? So I'm just going to leave all the defaults there, keep everything the same, and click Save. So now I have two fields there to pick lists from. But if I have a look at the pick list now for the record, you'll see that I have my invoice status set to "overdue good." But then the substate at this moment is showing all the values. So I want to basically restrict it so that when I select "Draft," the only thing that is displayed is "In Review" and "Pending." So let's dive into my invoice. Now you'll see here on the object there's a button called "Field Dependency." So if you click this and this, you can create that dependency between the two fields, or more if you want. So I'm going to set my controlling field. This is the field that's going to kick this dependency to the curb. I'm going to set the dependent fields or the dependencies underneath that as substatuses and then click Continue. And now it's basically showing me the first controlling field in this kind of grey header along the top. And now I've got all the possible combinations of the substates underneath. So now I've got to select the fields that I want in the draught status. So I said I wanted in. Review and pending So I'm just going to go select that. Include values. Include values. So now, if somebody selects Draft, they're just going to get these two options. I'm not going to have anything because I've been invoiced, and I don't need anything for that overdue. I'd like to say include those as well as paid. I don't want to include it, but you could if you wanted to include all the values, say, the page status or a different status. Now we've only actually got four columns, but if you did need to only show four or five at a time, you'll have to click next to go onto the next page to see all the other values of status and which option you want, but that's good for me. So you can click Preview to see what it looks like. So you can say, "Okay, so when we select Draft, we get those options in Review or pending invoices." Pages shouldn't do anything either, but my overdue status will have those substatuses as well. So that looks good to me. So I'm going to click save on that. Yes, and it's saying I don't have any terminal values for the other fields; that's fine. And that's it; I could create another dependency if I wanted between that second dependent, so the subscribers would be on another pick list if I wanted to do that as well. But that's all I need for now, so I'm going to dive back to my invoice. And now when I double-click on my status, I can say, "Oh, it's in draught state," and you'll see that it'll now filter that sub-status to just the two we want. So I want to just put it in "pending" and then click "Save." and that's essentially dependent picklists or dependent fields.

7. Creating Object Relationships

Okay? So if you think back to the object model that we kind of created—if you remember my kind of crude drawing—we've kind of started working on this invoice object in the middle. So we've kind of done the number field, we've done the invoice date field, we've done the status, and we're now going to create the company and individual links because this is where we want to kind of create the relationship up to the accounts and to the contacts. And also, we want to create this kind of invoice product object at the bottom and kind of relate that as well to the invoice object. So let's get going. So here's our invoice object. Now the first thing I'm going to do is create a relationship with the account and the contact. So I'm just going to use this quick menu on the left-hand side and create a new field. It's going to pop up a new window. And now we have these three different relationship fields. So we've got the lookup relationship, the master-detail relationship, and the external lookup relationship. So there are a number of different characteristics between these three different fields. Now I'm going to start with the external lookup first because that's probably the one that you're less likely to be using at the moment. An external lookup is basically a lookup to an external database. So Salsa has got this thing called Salesforce Connect, which allows you to connect Salesforce to a database that's potentially either somewhere else on the Internet or somewhere inside your company that's exposed to the Internet. So you can kind of view your records in sales sources if you're viewing them on your local database, which is kind of cool. So you can basically connect to one of those tables in those databases. Then we've got these two main types of relationships, the lookup relationship and the master detail relationship. Now, this is probably best described in this table that I've created because it has a number of different things between these two relationships. So the Master Detail field is, I think, the strongest link between your two objects. So when you make a relationship using a master-detail relationship in Salesforce, you can set permissions on any object in Salesforce and basically say, "Okay, only these specific users can see these records in this object." Now the difference between a master detail relationship and a lookup relationship is the master detail relationship. It basically cascades those permissions down to the Detail Record. So the records below So if you can read and write the record here, you can read and write the record below as well. As a result, everything cascades down and inherits the security. As a result, all of those child records inherit their parents' security. Now with a lookup field, that's different. So look up. The security is completely separate. So if we look at, say, invoice objects, now if we created a lookup between the invoice lines and the invoice, then potentially we'd have different security so different people would see different lines on the invoice, which doesn't really make much sense for us, but that's basically what it is. Then we have roll-up summary fields. Now roll-up summary fields are really cool. They can essentially roll up summary information from your child's records and send it to the parent. So we can basically count up all the totals of our invoice lines and roll them up to one field on the invoice. So we can have a total amount on the invoice, which is cool. And it also does averaging and sums and things like that. But we'll take a look at those in the SEC. But you can't do these with a lookup relationship. You can only do them with a master-detail relationship. Deleting records as well is slightly different. So if you delete the master record in that master detail relationship, that will cascade to delete all the records underneath it. If you delete the master record in a lookup relationship, the child records will not cascade delete. They'll essentially be orphans. They'll be sitting there without a link to that record anymore. But you can set it a little so that it kind of throws an error to say, "Hey, you've got to delete the children first before you delete the parent." The next detail record must have a master. And that's basically saying that if you've got a master-detail relationship, you can't go onto the invoice line, say, and just clear out the field for the invoice and say, Hey, it's just going to sit here, not linked to anything. You can't do that. It's got to be linked to a master record somewhere. But with a lookup relationship, you can clear that out. And so it can be kind of orphaned, sitting by itself and not linked to anything, which is something you might want. And finally, the maximum number of fields you can have for a master detail on an object is two. So you can have two master detail fields on an object, but with lookups, you can have basically as many as you like up to the maximum number of fields you could have on an object, which varies depending on what package you have with SalesForce. Okay, so let's dive in. Basically, I'm on the invoice object, and I have an option to choose either a lookup or a master detail relationship to an account. Which one would you pick if you had the choice? You think about it. So I'd choose the master detail relationship because if an account or a company is deleted from Salesforce, I want to delete all the invoices as well because it's essentially me cleaning up. Now you could say, "Well, actually, once the invoice is created, it's a legally binding document." We don't want to delete it. But maybe that's a rule that you put around the account. But, as I mentioned earlier, one of the key things is the roll-up summary field, which allows us to roll up and get the totals on the invoice. Now if I picked the lookup relationship, we wouldn't be able to do that. So mastering detail is the way forward. And for security, it makes a lot of sense as well. So if the user can see the company account in there, they can see all the invoices. As a result, security is deteriorating. So I don't need to worry about any additional security. So I'm going to choose that and pick the account. Now, Salesforce kind of defaults it to the name of the object you're linking to on the invoice. It does say company, but actually I want people to know the account name in Salesforce, so I'm going to leave it as account. And then on here you can basically set some permissions around it, but you don't really need to know this for the exam. And also, there's this thing called repairing. So you can basically move the invoice to another company if the invoice was created incorrectly in the first place. So I'm going to say yes, because it kind of makes sense for invoices, just in case somebody makes a mistake. Again, the security, as I said, is kind of cascaded down with a master detail, so you can't change the security on it. So whatever the account object has selected as security, it cascades down to the invoice. So we can't do anything there. And the field, too, we can't change because, essentially, it's a required field for the record. On the account object, there are actually a lot of default page layouts. This is basically adding the invoice to a related list on the account page. So we want to do that. So click "Save" for that. Now, you may or may not get this error. Now, this is because we've already created records on the invoices object, so you may have gotten this error as well. This is because we have an invoice record that we've created on that object, which isn't linked to an account yet. And according to the rules of a master-detail relationship, every invoice must be linked to an account. So basically, it's broken that rule. So the only way to get around this is basically to delete our invoice. So I'm going to dive back into my invoices. I'm going to click here to go on here.Oh, I've only got one, so I'm going to click Delete. Am this is basicand I'm going to pop back. I'm just clicking the back button. Yes. Send the information through, and then click Save again. and now it creates it. So just make sure you have all the invoices deleted, and then you'll be ready to go. But it is something that you may have an issue with later on. So it's always very important to get the object structure right at the start, as we kind of went through. So now, if I go into invoices and create a new invoice, I have my date and my notes drafted up. Yes, but now we've got this account field. Because it's a master detailed relationship, I can now click it's a required field. I'm going to click that box, and I'm going to look for another account. So I'll use that gene point and then save it. And now that record is linked to the general ledger account, I can now click through to that account, and if I scroll down, I get the invoices appearing on that because we added it to the page layout. And then I can click back into this. Cool. So I'm going to dive back into the fields. Okay, now we need to create one for the customer. So go ahead and create a field for the customer. Pause the video if you want. Otherwise, I'm going to go ahead. Okay, I'm going to go ahead then. So I'm going to do a lookup relationship for the contact because there might not be one. They may be direct with the account or the contact and say that he leaves the company or something happens. So there's a potential that the contact is not required. If we use the master detail, we'd always have to put a contact in there. So I'm going to use the lookup relationship for this, and then I'm going to go to Contact Click next, and I'm going to say Invoice Contact. Actually, I'm just going to call it contact. Now, as you can see, we don't have the repair here, but we do have this really neat little feature at the bottom here. It says what to do if the lookup record is deleted. So if the parent gets deleted, do we clear out the field or just don't allow the deletion of the lookup as part of the relationship? So you can kind of make it act a bit like a master-detail relationship. So if the parent deletes, it won't cascade delete, but it will throw up an error, saying, "Hey, you need to kind of do something first." Or you can just clear out the value, which is basically saying if the contact gets deleted, we just lose that field on the invoice. The contact blanks out basically andisn't linked to a contact anymore. So I'm going to click Next on that. Now, because it's a lookup field, we can set the security on it, which we wouldn't have been able to with the master detail. But that looks all good. Again, adding it to the page layout is all good. And then we add it to the page layout of the contact, which, yup, I want to do that as well because, when I go to the Contact record, I want to see which invoices they've been involved with, and I'm going to click Save. Now all we need to do is create the invoice lines object. So see if you can do that, and try to create a relationship back to the invoice. Now, if we look at our schema here or our ERD, you can basically see we need to create an Invoice Products object, and within that Invoice Products object, we need to create a relationship field to the invoice. We need to create a quantity field. We need to create a product field and we need to create a price field. So pause the video, go ahead, and do it. But if you want to skip through and see how I create it, then you can. Okay, so I hope you've completed that. So I'm just going to whizz through and create the Invoice Products object. So I'm going to click New Custom Object. I'm going to call it Invoice Products. Or actually sorry, invoice product. Take the s at the end of there and then call this one Invoice Products, plural. Okay, so I'm actually going to use an auto number for this. Now, you could use text to say what the product's name is, but you could also use the product name field linked to another object because you could use that to find out who is purchasing the specific product. It's not free text that anybody could type in and get things wrong. So I'm going to use the auto number, but you can still use the text if you wanted to. I want it in reports. I want to allow—actually, I don't want activities because they don't seem to make sense for products. I do want to track field history, which we're going to show in a bit, and allow chattergroups and leave all that as the default. Leave that, allow it in search, and I think that's all good. So I'm going to click Save, and now I'm going to create our fields. So the quantity is going to be a number field. Now I don't need any decent places, so that's fine. For that to help text, is it required? Yes, it is. Is it unique? No, it isn't. I don't need a default value for that. So I'm going to leave that. Leave all that and save. So now I've got the quantity. Now I'm going to create a field for the unit price. So I'm going to find a currency field, whatever it is, for currencies. And I'm going to refer to this as the unit price. Now with this, if I put in two decimal places now and click next, it will throw an error up because, basically, you can't have a length of 18 for your field. So I need to trim this down a little bit so that I can get it down to 16. So I got a space for the decimal number and the decimal places, and that works if I go back again. So this is the unit price of the product now. Is it required? Yes, it is. So I'm going to click Next and then Next again, as it's required. Obviously, these are all read-only, so click New again. Now I'm going to have a text field. I'm going to use the line text because all I need to know is this is for the product name, so I'm going to leave it as text. So this is the product product nowNow the length Now it can be up to 255 characters. Now, I don't think the product link should be that long, so I'm going to be about 150. That sounds about right. Is this required? Yes. Now, is it unique? And then you've got a choice to say if it's case-sensitive or case-insensitive if you want these to be unique. So it won't allow you to create a record if the field already exists on that object in another record. But no, I don't need that. There is no need for a default value or good. Next again, all read "only because it's required to save you." And now we have the tricky one. So, I did mention it in one of the earlier videos, which you may have picked up on, which is calculating the total for the product line? You could simply enter a number and allow the user to calculate the amount based on the number of units multiplied by the unit price. But what we're going to do is use a formula field. So here's the formula field. Now, we're going to create a very simple formula for this. So I'm going to click Next, and then I'm going to give it a name. so I'm going to call it total. And now I need to tell the salesforce what the output of this formula is going to be. So what am I going to do if I'm going to give salesforce a bit of text, a number, or a percentage? What's the output of this formula? So for us, it's going to be a currency because we want to multiply the unit price by the quantity to get the total. We want to have two decimal places, which is good. So we click Next, and now we're onto the formula. And now we're on to filling out our formula. Now, there is a great tips and operations guide here for quick tips and things, and it's got some example formulas in there that are really handy. So do read those, but they won't come up in the exam or are very unlikely to. Now, for some reason, it alwaysgoes into simple formula view. Now, I never use this; I always flick it straight over to advanced formula because it's a lot easier. And you'll see it in the SEC. This area here is basically where we're going to write the formula. And you've got some other buttons here, so you can insert fields, so we can kind of easily pick the field you want. So if you select Invoice Product, these are all the fields that are on the Invoice Product object. And we've got a load of functions that we can use. Again, this is very much like Excel functions. Again, this is very much like the Excel functions that we can use. But let's get going. So what we need to do is weneed to have the quantity plus or times. Now I'm going to use a star, which basically means times, and then times the unit price, which is going to equal our total currency. So okay, that's what we need to do. But we need to insert the quantity and unit price fields into this formula. So we're going to click Insert Field. And then here, you basically get a list of all the fields that are available. And if we scroll down here, you can see we've got an Add Quantity field. And when you click it, you get this box popping up, and you can click Insert, which inserts the field. And you can see it doesn't give it the name of the label, but it actually gives it the API name, which is the underlying field name. As a result, it has this underscore underscore C in it. So then we need to do a mathematical function, which is at times difficult, but you can have a look at all the different options here. So we can basically multiply here. We've got divide, subtract, add, open and closed parentheses—we can't even say it. And a few more greater and less than. And also, you can do logical operations like saying if this equals this and this equals this, then show this. But we're going to use multiply, and then we'll be multiplying. What we're multiplying is the total. So we're going to go insert the field again and scroll down. Actually it's not the total, so it's the unit price. So click "unit price" again. This pops up, and we can insert that again. And voila. Now there shouldn't be much around the formulas in the exam, but we've done quantity times unit price. Now it should work. You can now check by clicking check syntax and scrolling down. It says, "Yay, everything's fine; it's all gone green." So that's good. And also, I'm going to write in the help text for the user that this is a little bit about handling blank field handling.So if the field is blank and hasn't been entered, how do you handle it? Now that we're working in numbers, treat blank fields as zeros we want to keep. So usually, if your output is a number, then make sure this is selected; if it's a text, generally it's going to be blank, but it depends on what your form is doing. but generally you'll be fine with that. So click Next again. Now we can set the security permissions. Now, it's always read only because formulafield you can't user, can't change. So for everybody it's always going to be read only. But we can set the visibility. But I'm not, so I'm going to leave it there and add it onto the page layout. Yes, cool. So we've done that. Now we've got one more field to do, and that is the relationship between the invoice product and the invoice. So I'm going to click "New." So I'm going to use a master detail relationship because we want to create this summary field or roll-up summary field. So I'm going to find in herethe invoice, click next, that's all good. Going to leave everything the same. Yes, they all read it because it is a master relationship. Yes, we want it on that page layout invoice, and that's it, we're done. Now, if we go into invoices and dive into my invoice, I've got invoice products on here, so I've got my invoice and my invoice products. Now, when I click new invoice product, I can enter quantity, two unit price, ten product time, and my awesome product before clicking save. And now you can see our formula field is working because it's gone: two times ten equals 20, which is awesome. We also have that relationship. So now we can dive back into the relationship and we can see our product down here, which doesn't have much information at the moment, but you can find that out using the page layout video. And we got our information from there, and we've created those relationships now. And as you can see, we haven't created a contact relationship yet because it's a look up.But we can now as well, if we just wanted to go and find Jane Johnston, add her to Contact, click Save, and dive into Jane Johnston. And there's we got our invoices onthe listing on their record as well. So it's great for the visibility of records.

8. Traversing Relationships with Formulas and Summary Fields

Now we're going to look at how we can traverse our relationships and pull data into different objects. Now we can do this in two main ways: using formula fields and using roll-up summary fields. So let's take a look at the two So, basically, they look in two different directions. So if I have my invoice in the middle here, this is my invoice. And I want to display some information that's actually on that invoice record, which is on different objects. Now I have two ways of doing it. So, basically, if I want to pull down information from anything higher up in the hierarchy, I can. So this is directly from the fields on my invoice. So if I want to pull down an address, say from the account, and bring it down here to the invoice This is a higher-level relationship. And if I wanted to do this, I'd have to use a formula field to do it. But if I wanted to bring information up from the child records underneath the invoice, then this could be invoice lines. So if I could have lots and lots of different invoiceline records underneath, then I couldn't use a formula to do this because what I'd need to do is aggregate all the records together to get a value of some sort and bring that onto the invoice. And this is the key differentiator between roller summary fields and formula fields. Formulas can only go up from record to record when there's one record, then another record, and then another record hierarchy, but they can't go down. But if you want to pull stuff up from below where there are multiple records, then you've got to use roll-up summary fields. Okay, so let's take a look at how this works in practice. So we have our invoice here, and we have our invoice lines. And we created a formula field to total up the total price based on the quantity of the unit, which is great, but that's on that object. It's not bringing any data into that object. So it would be ideal if we could add up all of the invoice lines and put them in a field on the invoice so that we could see the total price for the invoice. So let's create a new field on the invoice. And as you can see, now we've got a roll-up summary field that has now become available for us to use. And this is because we have a master-detail relationship with one or more objects. The invoice is the only object we have. And I'm going to refer to this sum as the invoice total. Actually, I should have put a help text in. It's always good practise to always include it in.So the total of all invoice linesand now we've got an option. So first we got to choose the object we wanted to use. Now we've only got one object in our Master Detail relationship, which is invoiced products. And now we've got a choice. We can either count all the records that are there, so we've currently got two, so we'll return two, or we can sum up the records so we can sum up all the number fields or currency fields on that object. So we have quantity, total, and unit price. So total is good for that, and that's the field we're going to aggregate on. Also, you can use Min and Max to find the maximum value or the minimum value within all the records in invoice products. You can also filter the records as well. Now, for our scenario for this, it doesn't really make muchsense because we're just going to sum up all the totalvalues of our lines, but it makes more sense if wewere on the accounts, which I'll show in a SEC. So I'm going to create this field. Now we can set the permissions on it so it is always read-only because the user cannot edit a roll-up summary field because it's all driven by the other records. I'll put it on the page layout, then just click Save. So now that field is on there, and it's kind of calculating all the values. So if I dive back to my invoice, we should now get a total price for the entire invoice. So we can see now that 20 plus ten equals 30. Great. And if I add another line, say quantity 120, product name, we should be able to return to invoice 50. Yup. So it's rolling up the price, which is great, but if we go back to the account and we scroll down, it would be great if we could get a sum of all the invoices. So then on the account, we can understand all the invoices that have been sent to the customer. So on the account record, I'm going to create a new field, and this is going to be a roll-up summary. Again, I'm going to go to the total invoice next. Now I have the option to choose invoices because there's actually another master detail relationship, essentially, with opportunities as well. It works slightly differently, but we'll get to that when we get to the sales videos if we click invoices. And again, I want to do the sum of the total this time because there's only one number currency field on there. but this time we want to use the filter criteria. So I'm going to select only records that meet certain criteria and should be included in the calculation because I only want to include those invoices that have been approved because any draught or draught invoices haven't been sent to the client yet. So I'm basically going to say to only include the ones where the status is equal. We've got a couple of different operators. We could use equals and then select "invoiced overdue" or "paid," because essentially those are all the statuses where the invoice has been created. And then click Next. Set the visibility again. It's read only because it's a rollup summary field, and the user can't change it. and then click save. So now if we go to my account on here somewhere, sometimes it takes a little while for the calculation to happen. So I'm just going to refresh it again. There we are. It's now there. So now I've got a total invoice of £50. And just to test it, because you always test this, I'm going to create another invoice. By this time, I'm going to keep it draught and I'm goingto add just one because this is draught that account now. So if we go back to the invoice, we see now that this is ten. We go back to the account; it should stay at 50. That's 50; just refresh to make sure. Yeah, it's staying at 50. So that's great. And now, if I change that to invoice and return to the account, it should be $60. Yes, brilliant. It's working. Another method for bringing data into an object is to use formulas. So on the invoice, if we look at the invoice,what would be really great is we could get thebilling address from the account on the invoice. But I don't want to reenter the information every time we create the invoice. So we can use a formula field to do this. So if I create a new field, choose formula. Now I'm going to give it the name "billing country." Now select the return type of that formula. So what is the resultant field that's going to come out of that formula? where it's going to be text, because I'm going to get country out of it. So now what I want to do is traverse up to the account. So you can see here all the fields on my invoice object. You can see there's a little arrow next to them. This is essentially traversing up an object. So I can traverse up to the account and now select any fields on the account. So from here I can select my billing country and then insert that. And now I've pulled down the billing country from the account onto the invoice. But I could do something even more crazy. I could say, Well, actually, the billing address shouldn't be coming from the account. It should be coming from the Contacts' account billing address. So I could go contact, and then when I'm on the contact record, I could go to their account, and then from their account, I could get the billing country. So you can sort of traverse it in different ways. But we're not going to use that. We're going to basically just use the account billing country and insert that in here. And you'll see here that, actually, that changed from a C to an R. That's because it's a relationship to the account rather than the account ID itself, but you won't need to know that for the exam. And also, because I'm using a text field, I'm just going to treat blank fields as blank. And again, set the security on that field to read-only because it's a formula field, and then click save. Now, if we look at the invoice now, it all depends on if there's a country on that account. We'll get the country coming through, which we do. So here is the United States, but if you don't have a country coming through, you can dive onto the account, and here's the billing address. Double click on that. Just add in the country there, and it will pull through to your invoice. Okay, so now you know how to visualise different fields on an object based on their parent or master records, as well as their child records as well. So, if you have multiple records sitting beneath multiple related lists and want to summarise those related lists, remember that fields only work if you have a master-detail relationship, and the formula appears to work if you have a lookup relationship as well as a master detail. So you can do both of the fleet formula fields.

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