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Junos, Associate (JNCIA-Junos)
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TitleJunos, Associate (JNCIA-Junos)
TitleJunos, Associate (JNCIA-Junos)
Juniper JNCIA-Junos Certification Exam Dumps & Practice Test Questions
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Welcome back. This is the first lecture of Section Two, and in this lecture, we are going to talk about the Juno's device portfolio. Let's begin the journey. Device portfolio can be broadly classifiedinto the following product types wehave Application Management and orchestration. Identity and policy management, network edge services, network management, network operating systems, packet, optical, software-defined networking, routers and switches, and security are all available. Let's talk about some of the important categories at a very high level. First up, we have Application Management and Orchestration. So, Jennifer has this product known as AppFormix. App Formix is a cloud optimization and management platform. It allows you to track and automate operations on applications and software-defined infrastructure. It detects issues and manages remedial action. It is built for DevOps and cloud native environments, and it supports bare metal systems, virtual machines, and containers. We then have identity and policy control. It allows you to integrate subscriber privileges, application requirements, and business policies. It has two types. The first one is known as Session and Resources Control, or SRC. And the second one is the Steel Belted Radius Carrier, also known as SBR. SRC can be used to provide differentiated broadband subscriber plans and high-quality delivery of IPTV video, on-demand gaming, and multimedia services. While SBR is a high-performance authentication, authorization, and accounting (AAA) server that allows for access independence, differentiated services, and efficient network resource management. We then have network edge services. It's a suite of applications that provides service agility, reduces operating expenses, and optimises network infrastructure. It also has network addressing solutions that provide net and IPV six transition technologies, network monitoring applications that enable fault isolation, troubleshooting analysis, and reporting, and service control applications that automate the creation of highly customised services with policy-based traffic treatment. And with network edge security, you can scale services securely and eliminate threats at the network edge. We then have network management. The Juno Space Network Management Platform delivers unified control of routing, switching, and security devices. It provides a centralised network management platform for managing network devices and services. It understands workload and application behaviour across physical and virtual infrastructures. We then have network operating systems. The first one is Juno's operating system, which is a network operating system for advanced routing, switching, and security for both physical and virtual devices. And throughout this entire course, we're going to be talking in depth about the Juno operating system. We're going to understand the different capabilities, the different commands, and the different configurations of Juno's operating system. And actually, it's a lot of fun learning Junos. I'm sure you guys are going to love it. We then have Junosphere, which is a cloud-based service that allows networking professionals to perform network testing, design, and training exercises in a risk-free virtual environment. We then have routers, and it's one of the most important components of the Juno product family. There are many different families of routers—or many different types of routers. The first one is the MX series 3D Universal Edge routers. It provides routing platforms that provide industry-leading system capacity, density, and performance. And there are many models of the MX series of routers. We have Virtual MX, also known as VMX MX, Five MX, Ten MX 40, and so on. We then have PTX-series packet transport routers. These provide performance, optical transport integration, and deployment for up to 100 Gigabit Ethernet environments. The models are PTX 1000, PTX 3000, and PTX 5000. You then have the ACX series of universal access routers. These routers address use cases such as residential aggregation, small cell, and mobile backhaul, and these are mainly used by your telecom service providers. The models are ACX 500, ACX 1000, ACX 20010, and so on. You then have a CTP-series circuit to a packet platform. It provides serial and analogue circuit-based application access to IP networks along with time division multiplexing. And then finally, you have the T4000 Corerouter, which is a multi-service corrosion platform for a common IP or MPLS infrastructure with 384 terabytes per second throughput. Now, as we are discussing all of this, I also realise what you may be feeling. You may be thinking: Do I have to remember all this? From an examination standpoint, the answer is no. But since we are learning GNCI, which is the foundational course for all Juniper certifications, Juniper wants you to know the entire product family. They don't want you to remember it, but at least know it at a very high level. What are the different product types that are available with Juniper? So do not panic and do not get worried. How am I going to remember all of this? We don't have to remember it, we just have to know it from a knowledge standpoint. All right, let's move on. We then have security. So you have the SRX Series Services Gateway, which is the next-generation anti-threat firewall. And we are going to be using the SRX firewall for all the labs. in this course. We're going to be doing the labs on a firewall, which is known as SRX 100 B. You then have App Secure, which provides application security capabilities for SRX that identify and understand application behaviours and vulnerabilities. You have Sky Advanced Threat Protection, which is a cloud-based service that provides advanced malware protection. And then you have Juno's Space Security Director. It provides security management and centralised automated policy control across physical and virtual SRX firewalls. Finally, you have the switching family of devices. The first one is a series of Ethernet switches. These switches are designed for branch offices, campus networks, data centers, and service providers. And you have a whole range of models available. In the Ex series, you have Ex 2200, Ex 2300, Ex 3300, and so on. You then have two FX Series switches. These are high-performance, high-density switches for enterprise and service provider environments. And then you have the OCX 100, which is an open networking switch backed by the Open Compute Project (OCP) Foundation and designed for large cloud builders. So those are the topics that I wanted to discuss with you in this first lecture of Section Two, Important Tips. Well, just remember the product families and the different functions of the product families at a very high level. You don't have to remember everything, just know them at a very high level. And I have a little exercise for all of you. Open up your browsers and go to Juniper.net. This is the official website of Juniper Networks. And on the top right-hand corner, you'll see a page that says, or you'll see a link that says, "Products and services." What we discuss in today's class is all the information that is contained in these pages over here. So spend some time over here. Try to understand the different product families, their functions, and the different models that are available. And Jennifer also has a lot of images of the different devices in their product families. So make sure that you're spending some time over here. Here in the next lecture, we'll start by talking about the Juno's architecture, and it is going to get really interesting from here on. I'm really excited to see you in the next lecture. Let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching, and I'll catch you in the next lecture.
Hello and welcome back. In the last lecture, we discussed the Junos device portfolio, and we took a high-level overview of the different product families of Junos. In this lecture, we're going to talk about the software architecture of Juno's It's a short lecture. We're just going to take a very high-level view of the software architecture. If you're ready, let's begin. The Dunno's kernel is based on the Free BSD Unix operating system, which is open source software. The Juno's operating system functionality is compartmentalised, or in other words, divided into multiple software processes. Each process handles a portion of the device's functionality and runs in its own protected memory space. Now, this kind of architecture has its own advantages since the processes are running in their own memory space. Even if a single process fails, the entire system does not fail. It does not affect the rest of the system's functionality. All platforms running Junos use the same software source code base within their platform-specific images. This means the core features work in a consistent manner across all the platforms running Junos. In my opinion, this is one of the significant advantages of learning Junos. I work with devices from different vendors, and I've seen that some vendors have a lot of variations as you move between devices. The command line and the graphical user interface are not consistent across the different platforms that they have. But with Juneau, this is a big advantage. With Juno, you will find that the command-line interface and the graphical user interface are so consistent across multiple platforms that you'll find it really easy and simple to move between different devices. A Juno's device is divided into two sections. Number one, you have the control plane, and number two, you have the forwarding plane. The control plane is the brain of the device, while the forwarding plane is the muscle of the device. The control plane has a routing engine, while the forwarding plane has a packet forwarding engine. Let's understand these two items in detail. On a journalistic device, the control plane and forwarding plane are separated. The control plane runs on the routing engine, while the forwarding plane runs on the packet forwarding engine. Let's talk about the functions of the routing engine, and this is extremely important, not just from a knowledge standpoint but also from an examination standpoint. You may see a question that says, "Which of these are functions of the routing engine?" So make sure you remember these. The routing engine is the brain of the device. It is responsible for performing protocol updates and system management. It is based on the x86 or PowerPC architecture, depending on the platform that's running Junos. The routing engine is responsible for maintaining the routing tables, bridging tables, and the primary forwarding tables. The routing engine is also responsible for controlling the device's interfaces, the chassis components, system management, and user access to the device. which means when we log into the Juno's device, we see the command-line interface and the graphical user interface, which is known as Jweb. Both of these are actually being provided to us by the routing engine. The routing engine constructs and maintains one or more routing tables. With all these routing tables, another table is created, which is a table of just the active route, and this table is known as the forwarding table. Let's talk about the packet forwarding engine. The packet forwarding engine usually runs on separate hardware and is responsible for forwarding transit traffic to the device. In the next lecture, we'll understand what we mean by transit traffic. The packet forwarding engine receives a copy of the forwarding table from the routing engine, and this is done using an internal link. Forwarding table updates are very high priority and they are incremental in nature, which means the entire copy of the forwarding table is not replicated every time. It's just the updates that are sent over from the routing engine to the packet forwarding engine. Having a local copy of the forwarding table allows the packet forwarding engine to forward traffic more efficiently, and it also eliminates the need to consult the routing engine each time a packet needs to be processed. Because the packet forwarding engine already has a local copy, it does not have to go back and forth to the routing engine to make routing decisions. The packet forwarding engine can continue to forward traffic even when the control plane experiences instabilities. This is possible only because the control plane and the forwarding plane are separated. The routing engine provides the intelligence. The packet forwarding engine performs as instructed, which is to forward the frames and the packets. The packet forwarding engine usually runs on separate hardware, and in some cases it uses specialised chips known as application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC) for increased performance. The packet forwarding engine also implements advanced services such as rate limiting states, full firewall filters, and class of service. I got this picture from Juniper's website. It's actually very useful to understand the differences between the routing engine and the packet forwarding engine. The top portion of the diagram indicates a routing engine, and the bottom portion is the packet forwarding engine. As you can see, the routing engine handles most of the important tasks, like maintaining the routing tables, routing protocol processes, interface processes, providing the command-line interface, the chassis processes, and so on. While the packet forwarding engine is responsible for some of the chassis processes, it runs on an ASIC and it also handles some of the interface processes. Important tips: remember the differences between the routing engine and the packet forwarding engine, and also remember the functions of each of these items. Like I said before, it is also important from an examination standpoint that you know the functions of the routing engine and the packet forwarding engine. In the next lecture, we are going to focus on transit traffic, exception traffic, and protocol demons. That's all for this lecture. Let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching, and I'll catch you again in the next lecture.
3. Junos Protocol Daemons & Traffic Processing
Alright, welcome back. In the last lecture, we spoke about the Junos architecture. We understood the differences between the control plane and the forwarding plane. And we also talked about the functions of the routing engine and the packet forwarding engine in this lecture, which is a very short one. We're going to understand what we mean by "protocol demons" and talk about traffic processing. If you're ready, let's begin. If you recall from the last lecture, we discussed that in Juno's, every process runs in its own, protected memory space. This process that we're talking about is what we call a demon. So every process that is running in its own protected memory space is what is known as a demon. And every demon has a specific function. Some of the more common demons found in Juno's devices—there are a lot of them. I've only listed three of them. You have the routing protocol "Demon" or "RPD." It is responsible for controlling the protocol messages, routing protocol updates, and the implementation of routing policies. You have a Device Control Daemon, or DCD, which configures and maintains the device's interfaces. You have the Management Daemon, which is responsible for controlling user access to the device. And like I said, there are a whole bunch of these daemons. We don't have to worry about remembering the names or the functions. When we move to the next section where we'll start configuring the Juno's device, I'll show you how you can take a look at all the demons that are running on a Juno's device. All right, now let's talk about traffic processing. So there are two types of traffic. You have transit traffic and you have exception traffic. Let's start by talking about transit traffic. So, traffic that enters an ingress port is compared against the forwarding table and is finally forwarded out. Transit traffic is what an egressport is. Transit traffic is defined as traffic that enters the device through a port, traffic that is compared against a folding table, and traffic that is forwarded out another port. Now, for the forwarding table to actually forward the traffic, the forwarding table must have an entry for the destination of the traffic. If this does not make sense to you right now, do not worry because we have separate lectures dedicated to discussing routing and forwarding. Just remember: for the traffic to be forwarded out, there should be an entry for that destination in the forwarding table. For example, if you are sending traffic to tenone one, the forwarding table must include an entry stating that if traffic is received for tenone one, it should be sent out port zero or port one. Unless there's an entry like this in the forwarding table, the packet forwarding engine will not be able to forward that traffic out. Transit traffic is handled only by the forwarding plane. It is not sent to the control plane, and transit traffic can be unicast or multicast. I believe you already know. What is the difference between unicast and multicast traffic? Right. Unicast traffic enters one ingress port and exits another egress port, while multicast traffic enters one ingress port and exits multiple egress ports. This diagram tries to illustrate transit traffic. You have packets that are entering the forwarding plane. It is being compared against the forwarding table, and then it exits another port. That is what we call transit traffic. Now, let's talk about exception traffic. Exception traffic does not pass through the local device, but requires special handling. Examples of this traffic include packets that are addressed to the chassis, such as routing protocol updates, telenet sessions, ping, trace route, and replies to traffic sourced from the routing engine itself. Now, if this confuses you too much, just think about this. any traffic that is designed for the Junos device itself. Which means if you try to ping the Juno's device now, the destination of that traffic is the Juno's device itself. That is an exception traffic.When you try to telnet or log into Juno's device, that traffic is designed for the device, which is, again, an example of exception traffic. routing protocol updates. Whenever there's a change in the routing infrastructure, the Dunes device needs to recompute the routing table. So again, those kinds of routing updates are examples of exception traffic. Exception traffic also includes IP packets with the IP options field we spoke about. IP version four. Every IP version four packet has a set of headers. It has a set of fields. One of those fields is the IP options field. If the IP options field in an IPV4 packet is set, that packet is also considered exception traffic and traffic that necessitates the generation of ICMP messages. As you can see, the traffic is entering the forwarding plane and is being sent over to the control plane for further processing. So exception traffic is handled by the control plane because it is traffic that is designed for the device itself. Also, keep in mind that all exception traffic is intended for The routing engine is sent over the internal link. The internal link is a link that connects the control plane and the forwarding plane. Traffic that is traversing over the internal link is rate limited to protect the routing engine from denial of service attacks. What do we mean by rate limiting?Well, the rate at which you can send packets on the internal link is actually controlled. You cannot send an unlimited number of packets per second. There's a control where there's a limit on how many packets you can send over the internal link that connects the control plane and the forwarding plane. And the rate limiter in this case is not configurable. It's already configured by Juneau. Important tips Just remember the differences between transit traffic and exception traffic. Believe it or not, we are done with Section Two. That's right. Those are the only topics in Section Two. It's a really tiny, tiny section. In fact, the tiniest of all the sections for JNCI And we've discussed all the topics in this section. So in the next lecture, we're going to summarise what we learned in section two, and we'll also see what we're going to look at in section three. That's all for this lecture, guys. Let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching, and I'll catch you again at the next lecture.
4. Summary of Section 2
Hello and welcome back. In this lecture, we are going to summarise what we learned in Section Two. Let's begin. So in Section 2, we started by talking about the Juno device portfolio and understanding the different product types. With Juniper, the product types are broadly classified into these categories. You have application, management, and orchestration. You have identity and policy control for network edge services, network management network, operating system packets, optical software, defined networking routers and switches, and security. We discussed the important ones at a very high level. And I also showed you Juniper's website and the link where you can see all the different product types that are explained in detail. Once again, I'd like to recommend to you that you spend some time on that Web page. It has a lot of information on the different product types from Jennifer. It has a lot of data sheets. So if you need some technical information about the different products, Jennifer's website should be the one that you should be looking at. We then discussed the software architecture. We discussed that the Juno's operating system functionality is divided into multiple processes. Each process runs in its own protected memory space and handles a portion of the device's functionality. These processes are known as "demons" since they are running in their own protected memory space. Even if a single process fails, the device as a whole does not fail. The control plane and the forwarding plane are separated. The control plane runs the routing engine, while the forwarding plane runs the packet forwarding engine. The routing engine is responsible for performing protocol updates and system management, and it also maintains the routing tables and the primary forwarding table. The routing engine also controls the interfaces, chassis components, and user access. The command-line interface and the graphical user interface are also provided by the routing engine, while the packet forwarding engine has a copy of the forwarding table, which is used to forward the traffic. The control plane and the forwarding plane are connected with an internal link. The control plane is the brain of the device, while the forwarding plane is the muscle of the device. We then spoke about traffic processing and spoke about two different types of traffic: transit traffic and exception traffic. Transit traffic is defined as traffic that enters an ingress port, is compared against the forwarding table, and is forwarded out an egress port. Transit traffic is handled by the forwarding plane, while traffic that is addressed to the device itself is known as exception traffic. This includes traffic such as ping, trace, route, routing protocol updates, telnet, and so on. In the next section, we are going to start by getting our hands dirty. We are going to get onto a live Juniper device, and we'll start configuring items on that device. We'll start by understanding the command line interface functionality, the different modes, navigation, and help features. We'll understand how we can filter the output. We'll understand the differences between active and candidate configurations. very important topic. We'll talk about configuration files, and we'll also look at JWeb, which is the graphical user interface for Juneau. That's all the topics that we're going to cover in Section Three. I am super excited to be there with you. That's all for this lecture. Please let me know if you have any questions. If not, I'd like to thank you for watching, and I'm going to catch you in the next lecture. Thank you.
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