Microsoft Word MO-100 – Create and manage reference elements
1. 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 Insert and modify footnotes and endnotes
When you’re compiling a document, it’s an accepted protocol that if you use another author’s work, you have to cite that work. Basically, you’re giving credit to the author for the use of their material. Additionally, citing your source material shows that you have both researched your topic and they’re acknowledging other people’s ideas. Citations are referenced sources used or cited in your document and are normally included in a bibliography, which provides a list of additional resources when the document is complete. Citations also provide an opportunity for the reader of your document to explore the citations for themselves. Citations are managed from the References tab and in the Citations and Bibliography group. The Style Pull Them menu provides a list of all of the various citations stars that are supported by Microsoft Word. You don’t need to know what all of these are, other than that various academic disciplines use different specific styles. For example, APA is most commonly used in psychology and education. The Harvard style is used mostly for business. I’m going to select the Harvard style for this demonstration.
To add the citation, I go to the References tab and in the Citations and Bibliography group, I select the Insert Citation pull down menu. Now I select the option to add a new source. This involves the Create Source dialog, and the type of citation is set by default to Book. The citation will be added to the position that the cursor is at when you invoke this dialogue. Of course, there are many other types of sources that can be cited, and the Type of Source pull down menu determines the content of the Create Source dialog. For example, if I select the Journal article type, you can see that the information which can be entered is very different to that for a book. There are many types of sources that can be selected, as you can see when I scroll down the list, so the number and type of fears will vary depending on the source you choose. Each type of source, including nontext items such as media or pictures, includes a set of fears containing information you should provide indicating where the information can be found. The Add New Placeholder option should be selected when you know that you want to add a citation but don’t yet have all of the information for the source.
This action marks this location for entry of citation details at a later point so I can insert a placeholder and give it a name. Note that spaces are not allowed in placeholders names. If I enter a space, you can see that the OK button is disabled. Going back to the Insert Citation option, I’ve set the Type of Source to Book and let’s look at the options available in this dialogue in a little bit more detail. The Edit button at the right of the Author field can be used to add more names, such as additional authors or individuals to be given credit on the published work so I can enter all of the authors associated with the citation. Each time I add an author, the names are added to the list of names the reference being cited. When I press the OK button, you can see that the authors are listed in the author box with each author name separated by a semicolon.
Now I can add in the additional information for citation such as the title, year of publication, city of publication, the publisher, and the edition. These are the generally accepted minimum pieces of information required for a book citation. However, the Showoff Bibliography Fields option provides more fields of information which can be entered about citation should you have the information available. The red stars besides certain fields indicate the recommended fields for each citation. The more detailed sources you include, the more validity will be associated with the points presented in your document. As I select each of the source types, you can see that as well as the information fields changing, each type also has a set of recommended fields which will be completed when I create the source dialogue. The citation is placed into the document at the position I had the courser placed. When I press the Insert citation button, the style of the citation will be determined by the bibliography style chosen at the initiation of the process. You remember that I chose the Harvard style. The Managed Sources option in Citations and Bibliography group is used to manage all of the citations in your document. When you select it, the Source Manager dialog is invoked. All of the citations and sources are listed for selection. You now have the option to copy, delete, edit or create a new source from within this dialog.
A preview of the source is also available for quick reference. If you select a citation for editing, a screen appears which is identical to the one user. When you created the citation, you can then make the required changes. You also have the option to create a new citation using the new command. Notice that we have two lists of citation the Master List and the Current list. The Master List will save bibliographic information from all of your documents so that you don’t have to retype the information. If you use a source in several documents, the information in your Master List is saved on the local computer on which you created the reference and will not transfer if you saved the document to another source. However, all sources that you add to any document on that computer will be available from the Master List. This current list contains bibliographic information that you intend to use in the document that you’re currently working with.
Each document will have a separate current list. References in this list can be used for in text citations and will be included in your bibliography. The information in this list is saved with your document and will transfer. If you save your document to another source. When you’re ready to add your index, citations, and your bibliography to your document, all the sources you would like to cite will need to be in the current list for that document. To do this, you can either add new sources or sources from your master list to your current list using the Copy option.
A bibliography is a list of the sources used in the creation of a document, including any published or unpublished books, magazine articles, journals, or websites where information was gathered through the document. A bibliography is normally placed at the end of a document. To generate the bibliography, I click on the References tab and in the citations and Bibliography group, click Bibliography. The bibliography pull down list offers several styles for a bibliography. Which one you select will depend on the style required by your organization or school. When I select the type of bibliography I require, you can see how it looks here. If I need to, I can select one of these formats, modify the formatting, and then save it to the gallery for future use. If I want to generate a bibliography for every citation in my document, I can just click the Insert bibliography option.
2. 4.1.3, 4.1.4 and 4.2.3 Create, modify and insert bibliography citation sources
In some instances, you may want to provide additional information about something in the main body of your text, but without actually adding the information into the main body of the document. In such cases, footnotes and endnotes are commonly used to reference a selected item within the document. For example, it’s very common to include additional information about the author or originator of a specific item. You can also use footnotes and endnotes to point the user to additional information which may be useful as a reference. Footnotes will be displayed at the bottom of the page, while end notes are displayed at the end of the document. You can insert a footnote or endnote by going to the References tab and selecting the required command from the footnotes group. The reference to the footnote will be inserted wherever the cursor is positioned when you select the command. So I position the cursor here, and when I click the footnote command, I’m now brought to the bottom of the page where I can now enter the text. The Footnote so I entered the following text it should be noted that Ryanair are one of the most successful airline carriers in the world, with significant growth in terms of passenger numbers in the last ten years.
As you would expect, footnotes normally appear at the foot or bottom of the page. However, they may also be placed directly beneath the text. Each footnote has a numbered note reference mark. The default has the footnote numbering running continuously throughout the document. However, by clicking on the arrow at the bottom of the footnotes group to open the footnotes dialog box, you can have the footnote numbering restart on each page. We look at these options in more detail in the next lecture. The footnote reference mark is generally placed after the text you’re referencing. End notes, on the other hand, appear at the end of the document or the end of a document section. Notice that because there are already footnotes on the page, the new footnote I’ve inserted is inserted between the fourth two because it’s physically between them on the actual page. Footnote numbers will reflect the number and placement of the footnotes in the document.
If I go back to the position on the document where I added the new footnote, you can see that the number has been placed on the word Selected. When I hover the cursor over the number, a small mail icon is displayed and when I double click on it, I’m brought automatically to the footnote. Again, as the name suggests, end notes are placed at the end of the document. To create an endnote, I go to the References tab and in the footnotes group I click the Insert Endnote button. Now I’m brought directly to the end of the document and the numbered end note has been created and now I can type the contents of that end note. To customize a footnote or endnote, I go to the References tab and in the Footnotes group, click the Extended Menu launcher in that footnote group like so here I can specify alternatives to the default settings for footnotes and endnotes. The options available will apply to the selected radio button either Footnotes or Endnotes. I select the Footnotes radio button first.
The location options allows me to specify where I want the footnotes and then End notes to appear. To change the setting, I select the required radio box. I select Footnotes, and I have a choice to have them at the bottom of the page or beneath the text. The location options for end notes are end of document or end of section. The Footnote layout pull down allows you to change the display of the footnote text into varying numbers of columns. Alternatively, you can by default follow the layouts of the section of the document that the footnote has been placed into. The Number Format option allows you to choose the number format to be used for the footnote or end note. The Custom Mark option allows you to specify a specific character for use as a marker for the footnotes or end notes.
As you can see, when I choose this option, I can select a symbol to use and when I apply it, that symbol appears beside every footnote. You can also choose to begin Footnote or End note numbering as a specific number or continue from previous footnotes or end notes in this or another document or document section. The Numbering option allows you to keep the numbering as a continuous sequence throughout the document. Or using this pull down menu, you can opt to have the numbering restart after each section or page in the document. The Apply Changes to option allows you to apply the changes to the complete document or only to the text that has been previously selected. When I change the radio button selection to End Notes, you can see that the options are identical. The next footnote puller menu allows you to move between the footnotes and the end notes as required. To view the text or footnote or endnote.
You can place the cursor over the icon where the footnote has been placed and the text will be displayed. You can move a footnote or end note to another location in the document by cutting the footnote or note reference from its current location in the document and pasting it into the near location. You can see that when I move this footnote, the location of the footnote is also moved to the bottom of the relevant page. To delete a footnote or endnote, you select the Footnote or Endnote Reference mark. Press the Delete key and as you can see, the footnote has been removed. To convert a footnote to an endnote, or vice versa, select the reference and then on the References tab in the Footnotes group, click the Footnote and Endnote dialog box launcher, then click the Convert button. You’re then prompted to confirm that you want to convert all instances of footnotes or endnotes in the document. In the next lecture, we’re going to see how to create and modify bibliography, citation sources.
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