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DateJan 21, 2023
DateApr 24, 2020
ASQ CSSGB Practice Test Questions, Exam Dumps
ASQ CSSGB Six Sigma Green Belt exam dumps vce, practice test questions, study guide & video training course to study and pass quickly and easily. ASQ CSSGB Six Sigma Green Belt exam dumps & practice test questions and answers. You need avanset vce exam simulator in order to study the ASQ CSSGB certification exam dumps & ASQ CSSGB practice test questions in vce format.
at that tool and see what advantage this tool offers. So here is the tool. This is a very simple tool. Here we just have five columns. Suppliers are listed in column one. The second column is inputs. Then comes the process, followed by the outputs, and finally the customer. So this is where the value flows. Value flows from suppliers. This becomes input for the process, the process gives output, and the output goes to the customer. So now the question comes: Why do we need this tool? This tool helps in familiarising us with the process. The process that we want to improve is the project that we want to do. This gives an overview of the process. Here we identify all relevant information or the elements of a process before we start the work. Some of you in the team might be from another discipline or have other functions. So they need to understand how this whole process works. Maybe you were in the same process, but it has been a long time since you have been involved in this process. So, this tool will help you understand the process. Let's take a simple example of me making these courses. So how do I start my cycle? Let's take an example where I want to improve the performance of my course preparation. So here I am preparing an online course. How do I improve my performance? So for that, I want to prepare a type of outline that just gives me an overview of the course preparation process. So let's draw that So, generally, what you do first is start with a process. So here is my process. Here I might want to just draw a few boxes where, let's say, the first one is preparation and the second one is, let's say, recording. My third step will be, let's say, editing these videos. And then the next step would be—let's say—launching a course. So this is how I will put my process here in the middle. And then I will look at the inputs, outputs, suppliers, and customers. If I have a team that is doing Six Sigma projects with me, then I would like to brainstorm with them. Let's say, what are the inputs for this? so inputs would be software. So let's say I'm using Camtasia Studio. Camtasia is the software I need. And then I need hardware. Hardware is the input, which is the microphone, my laptop, and my tablet. These are, let's say, the inputs for this whole process. And then who are the suppliers? So let's say Captainia is provided by TechSmith. So this is the name of the company that prepares the software and then the hardware. Okay, my microphone is Road podcaster. So that's the company that is providing this microphone. My laptop is, let's say asus my tablet is vacant. So here I'm putting all the supplier's input processes. Then output would be output would be MP4,video files and there will be quizzes. This is my output from the process. And then my customers are people on Udemy. Let's say if I'm selling this quote onUdemy, then Udemy customers are my customers.
Because knowing that will help you understand the level of interest these people have or the power these people have to influence your project. So what you want to do as a part of project identification is identify these process owners or stakeholders as well. Many times, you create a matrix in which you list all of your stakeholders, what their expectations are, how much power they have, how much influence they have, and how much interest they have in the success or failure of your project. You just need to list all these things in a simple matrix, which can help you in addressing the needs of these stakeholders as you go through this project. Here, on the right side, I have put a globe. As a result, stakeholders can be thought of as layers on the globe. So at the core of this globe are the owners or managers, because they have a deep interest in the success of your project or in making sure that your project provides the desired benefit to the organization. So owners and managers are at the core. Then the next layer will be the process owners, suppliers, customers, employees, and partners. And then maybe going further, you will have local communities, associations, media, and an outer layer that is public. So each of these stakeholders might have some level of interest in your project and some level of influence. So you need to identify each of these and list them down; some of them might not be relevant to your project. Let's say in your case that the public might not be interested in your project or what you're doing. Some of the process owners might be interested in making sure that your project succeeds. So if you list these things, then you can look for support and help from all those people who are interested in the success of your project. So this is one important aspect. When you are identifying the project, identify stakeholders as well. So with this, we complete the topic of project identification, where we covered five subtopics.
So this is something which we have done. Now coming to Voice of the Customer. This is what we will be talking now inVoice of Customer we have three main topics. One is customer identification. Second is customer data, and then third are customer requirements. In customer identification, we will talk about how you identify customers. Who is your customer? And here we will talk about internal and external customers. Then we will talk about customer data,how do we collect data from customer. This data could come in the form of surveys, in-person discussions with clients, and many other ways. So those are the things about which we will be talking in customer data. And then we will talk about customer requirements. How do we find out customer requirements and how do we address them? There is an important tool here, which is quality function and deployment, that we will be talking about in this section, which is customer requirements with this introduction.Now let's come to this first topic, which is customer identification. So when we say customer, customer could beinternal or customer could be external customer. So there are two broad categories of customers. The notion of internal customers was popularised by Joseph Duran. He emphasised that we need to give equal emphasis to internal customers as well. We just don't look at outside customers; we look at internal customers as well. And when I say internal customer, the person who is next in the process is your customer. So let's say if you have three processes being done, let's say this is process number one, process number two, and process number three. Input comes here, goes through process one, then comes to process two, then comes to process three. And here we get the final output. Let's say this is the production process here. If you look at point number two, operator number two here is for operator number two, and operator number three is the customer. Now what operator number two has to do is operatornumber two has to satisfy or meet the needs ofthis third operator who is next in the chain. This is called internal customers. Your customer is whoever comes next in the process chain. External customers, as opposed to internal customers, are the true customers. That could also be divided into different categories. The external customer could be an intermediate customer. So an intermediate customer is, let's say, if you have a plant that is manufacturing something, then it goes to something that is a wholesaler, and then it goes to a retailer, and then it goes to the customer. The wholesalers and retailers who are in between these parties are the intermediate customers. But then the real customer is the one who actually pays the money and gets the product. So that will be the customer. And then a consumer is something that actually consumes the product. Let's say if we are talking about a chocolate factory, chocolates are being made. These go to wholesalers; these go to retailers. So wholesalers and retailers are the intermediate customers, and the customer is the father of the child who is buying this chocolate from the shop. So he is the customer. And then consumer would be that kid whoeats the chocolate would be the consumer. So you need to understand who the customer is in your work process and how you are trying to improve who the customer is.Once you identify customers, then you can find away to look at the requirements of these customers.
in customer data collection. There are a number of techniques, and here we will briefly touch upon these four techniques, which are surveys, focus group interviews, meetings, and observations. In surveys, you listen to your customers by mail, sending them an email and looking for a response from them, or you make a phone call, or you could do web surveys, or you could look for feedback. So these are some of the ways where yousurvey your customer and get some feedback from thatget the data which can help you in definingwhat is the level of, let's say customer satisfaction. Now, before and after doing this project, another technique is the focus group. In a focus group, you bring, let's say, five, six, or seven people together in a room, and then you have an expert facilitator who talks to these people and talks about the product and talks about the opinion, belief, and attitude of these people who are in the room. That's a focus group. Then you can have interviews and meetings—individual interviews and meetings with a customer. If you are a big company and you are doing big projects, then you might want to meet face to face with the people who are using your product to know how they feel about the product or service that you are providing. That's another approach for getting customer data. and then the last one is observation. Here, you observe how the customer is using your product. So these are some of the ways we will betalking about surveys and focus group in little bit moredetail as we go further into this lecture. Let's talk about surveys first. When you conduct a survey, it could be via mail, phone, or web surveys, whatever the case may be. The first thing you need to understand is what the goal of the survey is—what you want to get from the customer. In this survey, many times you have questions. So when you ask these questions, make sure that your questions are unambiguous. And when I say unambiguous, that means the question should convey only a single meaning; it should not convey a double meaning or be different for different people. So you need to make sure your questions are very clearand then you can ask your customers to rate you ona scale of one to ten or one to five. Whatever you decide, you need to keep the historical relevance of these surveys. Let's say if I send a survey to my students now and then I send a survey to my students one year from now, then it's good to have relevance so that you can know that from last year till now, what is the change? So every time you have a new survey with new questions, you basically cannot assess the historical relevance of these questions. In addition to rating from one to five or one to ten, you could, or rather, I should say you should, have some open-ended questions where your customers can provide you with their input in the form of text. So this is about the questions and before yousend this survey to your customers, make sure thatyou review this survey and many times it's advisableto send this survey to some limited number ofpeople within the organisation or some people who canprovide feedback on the survey itself. Survey questions itself, whether the survey questions arefine, they do not convey the different meaning. So you might want this review before you send this survey to all your customers. Then you send this survey to your target audience, and then you analyse the survey. So, in the next slide, we'll talk about how to improve the quality of your survey questions so that they don't have any inherent bias. So here I have a few points related to the questionnaires. The first thing you want to do is eliminate vagueness. So your question should not be vague, like, "People should not get confused. What does this mean?" and then eliminate ambiguity. Again, that's a confusion. Avoid the confusion in the questions and eliminate unintended biases. And when I say "unintended biases," you might introduce some bias. When you ask a question, your wording in the question might introduce some bias. Let's take a simple example of one question being asked in two different ways, and this is regarding abortion: whether abortion is good or bad. Let's say this is something I want to ask people, and if I ask, do you think abortion is good or bad? This is one way to convey, and this one is without any bias. I'm just asking, is abortion good or bad? But the same question applies if I put it the other way around and say, "Do you think that it is okay to have an abortion if it is the only way to save the life of the mother?" So here I am sort of introducing a bias in the question itself when I'm asking whether abortion is okay when this is the only way to save the mother's life or not. I don't want to go into the politics of abortion or no abortion. But this is just one example where you can twist the wording of your survey, which could basically lead to biases, and the response to these two questions will be different. Even if you give the same question to 100 people, you will get different responses. In regards to this particular question of abortion, another thing that you need to do in the questionnaire is include NA, which is not applicable, and other choices when you list down four or five items and you want your customers to select one of them. So if this is not applicable, leave the space for "NA" or make one choice as another choice where people can input their feedback. So this was about surveys; now we come to the next approach or method of collecting data, which is focus groups. What we do in focus group, as I toldearlier, we have a group of people, let's saysix to ten people in a room. And this discussion is facilitatedby a skilled moderator. And then here we ask people about their perception, opinion, belief, and attitude about the product or service that we want to offer or that we are offering. What facilitator does is the first thingfacilitator will do is engage people. So for that, he or she would put some questions that are engaging, just to make sure that everyone is engaged. These are not difficult questions and are easy to answer. They are just to have an introduction and get things going. So after this, the next step the facilitator will do is put some exploration questions, or key questions, or the main questions that this focus group was supposed to answer about the product or service. And then once these questions are answered, the moderator will make notes of that, and then there will be an exit question where the moderator could ask that if anyone wants to add something more to the discussion, that can also be recorded. So this is how a focus group is run. So these are the two things that I wanted to discuss in detail. surveys and focus groups. Interviews and observations are very obvious things. So we are not going into the details of that. So this completes our discussion on customer data.
of approaches to collect customer information or customer data. So now what do we do with this data? We use this data to improve product features and to improve customer satisfaction by meeting their requirements, and this is what we will be discussing here in this lecture, which is customer requirements. One of the important tools that is used to translate customer requirements into product features or improvements is QFD, or quality function deployment. Let's talk about that. This tool was developed by Yogikao In. We will look at this tool as we go further into this course, but let's understand the purpose of this tool. So this is the tool to acquire and analyse the voice of customers and then translate it into product requirements and quality assurance measures throughout the design, build, test, commercialization, and even product retirement processes. So, the first thing that we understand here is that this is the tool that takes the voice of the customer and translates that into the project requirements or quality assurance measures, and we can use this tool throughout the life of the project, during the design phase, during manufacturing, during testing, during commercialization, and during retirement. So in all the phases of the product lifecycle, we can use this tool. Let's quickly look at the tool first. So, here is the tool. So the diagram on the right side was created using Sigma Excel. Sigma Excel is a statistical tool that helps you do a number of statistical calculations and helps you with Six Sigma projects. Now let's quickly look at this picture and understand what it this show.So, the first thing that we need to do in QFD is to understand what the customer wants, and that's what we put here in this area, which is what? Let's put it at number one here. So that's the first thing that you do: what does the customer want? What's the voice of the customer? Then the next thing you want to do is note down the importance of that—how much importance the client or the customer is giving to this particular requirement. Customer might require a number of things butsome of the requirements might have more importance,some of the requirements might have less importance. So, on a scale from one to nine, you rank the importance of this issue. So that's the second thing that you do in QFD based on these customer requirements. Now, how do you meet these requirements? That's what you put here in the house. As we go further in the next lecture, I will make a simple QFD for my online courses. So when I'm making online courses, what do customers want, and how do I meet that? I have made a simple demonstration of that in the next video, but let's focus on the theory part of QFD here in this video. So, the third point is that we list all of the ways in which we meet the needs of our customers. In my case, of course preparation customer mightwant that my course should be comprehensive. So how do I meet that? I meet that by making sure that my course aligns with the ASQ Body of Knowledge, which is an internationally recognised organization. So if I meet that requirement, then I can say that my course is comprehensive. So this is part of the QFD. The next thing that you want to do is write down the relationship between what and how. So what do customers want? customer wants a comprehensive course. And how do I meet that? I meet that by having it aligned with the ASU body of knowledge. So yes, these two things have a great relationship. So here I can put number nine, that there is a strong relationship. As you can see, the relationship is only listed in three steps. If there is a very weak or almost nonexistent relationship, then you give it number one. If there is a moderate or tandem relationship, then it gets number three. And if there's a strong relationship, then it gets number nine. And there are symbols for these A weak relationship is shown by the triangle, a moderate relationship is shown by the circle, and a strong relationship is shown by the circle with the dot inside it. So this is how you show the relationship between what and how. So this was the most important part, the relationship between what and how. And then there are a number of other features whichyou would see that different QFDs have different things. Some have these, some don't have these.For example, if you look on the left in this area, this area shows the relationship between what the customer wants and if there is a relationship between these two needs—whether these two needs are positively connected with each other or negatively connected with each other. Let's take an example of what customers don't want. My customer wants that my course be comprehensive. That's fine. However, the customer also requests that my course be kept to a minimum; it should be brief. So these two things basically contradict each other. Then there will be a negative relationship. So you will put a minus sign here. If there is a positive relationship, you put a plus sign here. And if there's a very strong positive relationship, then you put two pluses here in this box, which connects two whats. So, how about this what and this what? You erected a sign here. In the case of houses, you do the same thing. Also how two things are being met there alsoyou can look at the correlation between two house. How do you meet customer requirements? If you have a positive relationship, a negative relationship, or a very strong positive relationship, you can also list it here. Why do you need that? You need this relationship because if you find out that there is a negative relationship between them, how will you meet the requirement? If there's a negative relationship, then if you meet one, you will be losing another. So if there's a negative one, then you might have to make a compromise here. That's the reason you want to know whether there's a negative or very strong relationship. So once you have done that, then there are a number of things. Let's talk about here, how you meet requirementsand then you want to put Target also. So let's say I want to make my videos short in length to meet customer requirements. In that case, I need to put a target here. Okay? My target will be to have each video be two to 10 minutes long. So, target, that's what you put here. Then you might want to put benchmarks here. Benchmark is what best-in-class companies are doing, if you are aware of that as well. And then you want to find out the implementation priority. How do you find out implementation priorities? that you discover through a little mathematical calculation, and how you perform this mathematical calculation Let's take one example here. Assume the customer's requirement was assigned a seven-point scale of importance. The relationship between what and how is then listed here. Assume this is the first item you put as a strong relationship, which is represented by a circle with a dot inside. And what does this mean? This means number nine. So if I go down and if there's no otherthing here So if I just go down here, what I will have here is nine multiplied by 763. There might be different calculations. You will see in the next video that some QFDs do calculations in a different way. Rather than multiplying this with seven, they multiply this with the percentage. But it's all the same. What you are interested in finding is this score, which is the implementation priority score, which tells you that if this number is high, then that is something that you need to give priority to when you want to meet customer requirements. We will look at these calculations in more detail in the next video. The next step on the right side is to conduct a competitor analysis. Where do you stand in meeting the customer's needs? You give us a rating of one to five on a scale of one to five for yourself, your product, and other competitors as well. This will show you which areas you need to improve on and which areas you are far superior to competitors in. So here you will see a graph that looks something like this: So this is all about QFD, or quality function deployment. In the next video, let's see a practical demonstration of a very simple QF. The fourth course preparation in my own case.
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