ISACA COBIT 5 – Define (BOK IV) Part 3

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  • January 26, 2023
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6. Customer Requirements – Quality Function Deployment QFD (BOK IV.A.3)

To find out customer requirements and implementing that in product or service is the Quality function Deployment or QFT. QFT was the tool which was developed by Yogi Akao in 1970s. This is the tool to acquire the voice of customer and then transforming that into the product requirements. So here I have the structure of a QFD. The quality function deployment. This sample was taken from SigmaXL SigmaXL as a template and you can open that template in Microsoft Axel and you can fill the requirements of QFD in that sheet or in that template. So let’s look at this template here.

What does this template has broadly? So the first thing in this template is what part which is here what does customer want? In the previous case of critical to Quality or CTQ, we talked about an example of a hospital or a clinic where customer wants quick service, less time to register, more time with doctor, all those things are requirements, that is what customer wants. Those things you put here in what and the next thing then you do is how you are going to achieve that.

That is something which are put here. So that’s step number two, how you will be doing that, making sure that registration of the patient takes less time. What are the steps for that? That you might want to have a computerized system where you have already the customer information. That could be one thing how you will achieve the requirement of customer.

So all those hows are put here. Then coming to the third box here, which tells the relationship between what and how. And in this relationship you say whether there is no relationship or there is a weak, moderate or strong relationship. That’s what you put here. Weak relationship is given number one, the moderate relationship is given number three, and the strong relationship is given number nine. This is one example. So if there is a strong relationship, let’s say the customer wants a quick service, a quick registration and for that registration you have a software where you already have customer information. So there is a strong relationship between this what customer wants and how that is achieved.

So in this specific case you might want to give a rating of nine that there’s a strong relationship between this specific what and this specific how that you put in this relationship. So you might want to put a nine here against a specific what and a specific how. So that’s one thing. Then you look at competitors, how your competitors are doing, then you look at the targets here. What are the targets you want to achieve that your target is 5 minutes for registration and then you want to put a best benchmark with the other clinics, what other competitors are doing. And then you might want to put an implementation here that whether it’s difficult and what is the priority to implement that. So that’s put here on top you have a relationship between two house. So this relationship between two house are put here at the top. So this specific and this specific solution.

So two specific solutions, the relationship between that is put at the crossing of that. So that’s here importance should be put here that what is the importance of specific customer requirement that you put very early here as maybe step number two or step number three, that what is the importance of that particular customer requirement. So you make all this matrix and this helps you in implementing the solutions to meet the customer requirements and this is how you translate the requirements of your customer into how you are achieving that. The application of QFD is both in manufacturing and service. So you can have this in service industry, manufacturing, business, process development, government or any other application. This has a quite wide application. On the next slide let’s look at an example which was created using hand drawing. So QFD was made using roughly hand drawing how a QFD was created. So that will give you a more idea about how QFD is created.

So let’s move on to that. So here we have another simple QFD and this QFD was created for preparation of this course. For example, if I have to prepare this course, what do my students look for? And that was the what component of QFD. So that I have put on the left that students need comprehensive course, they need practice quizzes, they need the course to be interesting and they need the course to be practical and then the next step was to put the priority to each of these based on the survey which I would have done. So comprehensiveness was given a priority of seven, interesting was given a priority of nine, et cetera. And then on the top I have how I will achieve that. So achievement is done by smaller courses, smaller videos, giving more examples, complying to the body of knowledge and having quizzes. So these four steps I thought would help in meeting my customer requirements and then I made the relationship between that.

So for example, if you look at the comprehensiveness and the body of knowledge as how there is a strong relationship, students want the course to be comprehensive. If this course is clause by clause matching with the body of knowledge of a good ASQ exam then that will make the course very comprehensive. So there is a strong relationship between that and then what you do is you multiply that number. So that number for strong relationship was nine. So nine multiplied by seven, which was priority, gives me a 63 score on the right. So that tells me which all things I need to attend to first. So if I look at score 171, then it tells me that having course interesting is the most important thing to my students. And once again, let me tell you that these numbers and this QFD is a hypothetical. So there is no practical data collected for that.

This is just to demonstrate how you create QFD. So once I know that my student wants this course to be interesting, then I should be working towards that. And then on extreme right, if you see, then I have put there the competitors, how my competitors for online courses on Six Sigma are doing. So I would have looked at one to five competitors and see how they are performing on each of these parameters, on comprehensiveness, on having quizzes, on making the course interesting and practical. And then I can mark how my course is performing compared to competitors. Now, going to the bottom, it calculates the score of how. So if you look at the first column, which is a strong relationship between interesting and small videos, which is the rating of nine.

So the nine multiplied by the priority, which is also nine, gives me 81. And that way I calculate all the scores for how and I see that 153, which is for examples, is the highest score. So that means having more examples will help in achieving more customer satisfaction. And then I can put targets for these. For example, for smaller videos I can put a limit of two to 10 minutes. And for quizzes I can put an example of 100 questions, etcd. So that’s how if you see a quality function deployment matrix or QFD was prepared, this is a simple, plain example to explain the concept of QFD.

7. Customer Requirements – SIPOC (BOK IV.A.3)

Here we have another tool which is used in defined phase of DMAC stage which is Sypoc. And Sypoc means supplier, input, process, output and customer. So this is a chain chain starting with the supplier who all are the suppliers, what are the inputs to the process, what is the actual process, step by step. And then we have an output, what is the outcome or the result of that process. And then who is the customer.

So, if you list down all these elements of your six Sigma project, that will help you in understanding or defining your project properly. So here I have a template which I have taken from Sigma Excel. And in this, if you look at that, the first column is supplier. So here you list down supplier. So for example, if I take an example of my weld repair, so the supplier for that process, which is the welding process would be electrode supplier, the company which supplies electrode. So this is electrode supplier, welding electrode supplier is one supplier. And then if you have a supplier who is supplying welders to the company, if welders are not permanent employee.

So that could be one welder supplier. And then material which is being welded, the supplier of that. So you can list those as well. So material supplier. And in the welding process, what are the inputs? So, inputs are the material which is being welded material and the preparation for the welding. And then you have electrodes, electrodes are also input to that and welders are also input to the process. And then here you have the process. So what is done is process has been expanded here at the bottom, starting with the starting point to the ending point. Starting point would be preparation for the welding. Preparation for the welding and end point might be the test of the welding.

So testing of that, then you have number of steps, step number 12345 in between, which could mean welding layer by layer, cleaning that, welding, etc, ETCA. So those could be steps here in case of welding. And then you have an output here. So the output of this process will be welded joint, that’s the output of the process. And then who is the customer? You can list down the customer. If it is internal or external, you can put it here who is the recipient of this welding. So probably this could be assembly. So if the piece is going to assembly section, then assembly section is the customer of that.

So that is how you put information in your SIPOC chart. And on the top you can put the project name, which was your weld repair rate. Repair rate, that was your project date prepared by end node. So you can put all this information here and that will complete your SIPOC chart. A few things to note down here is when you are writing down about the process, your process here should be limited to maybe four to five steps. Only you are not putting too many details here. This is just the high level it’s just the high level overview of the process. The whole purpose of this SIPOC chart is for you to understand, for you to present this to management.

That what all the process is about. And then in input or output, you can put specific requirements as well, which is an optional. So you can put that electrode which electrode is to be used. So if the electrode number or something is something like 7018, then you put that that this particular specific electrode or this particular welding material is being used here. And what is the material of that, you can put here. So here you can put requirements related to input and here you can put requirements related to the output of the product or the service. So this completes our discussion on site.

8. Customer Requirements – Kano Model (BOK IV.A.3)

When you have to deal with customer requirements understand Customer Requirements then this specific model which is Kano’s model and this was created by Professor Noriki Kano. He developed this concept. This will help you in defining customer requirements or understanding customer requirements. Here the customer requirements. Our preferences are classified into three categories basic needs or must be quality. Then we have performance needs and then we have attractive quality or also known as delighters. How do these things work? Let’s understand that using the canoe model on the next slide. So here I am drawing the canoe model here. So there are two axes. One is horizontal axis and then there is a vertical axis. On the horizontal axis I am putting implementation of customer requirements. So on the right we have fully implemented and on the left it is not implemented and on the top this is related to the satisfaction client has achieved. So at the top shows satisfied client and at the bottom is dissatisfied client. So if we are talking of some basic needs so the first thing which reset was basic needs or the must be requirements. So for each product or service there are some requirements which are must, which should be there.

So if you have a car, car should be able to take you from point A to point B. So that must run, there must be doors in the car, there must be stirring in the car, all those things are requirement. So if you’re talking of a phone, people should be able to make a call. So those are requirements, those are the basic requirements. So how does implementation of that affects client? So for example, if the basic needs are not implemented, what will happen? Client will be unsatisfied and if the basic needs are implemented, client will be okay you cannot say satisfied but client will be okay. So here is, if I draw a line related to the basic needs, this is the line related to the basic needs.

So these are basic needs. So if these are not implemented, which is this section, then the client will be dissatisfied. And as I move up on this, as we are implementing more and more, as we are going to the right so reaching here, when we have fully implemented the requirements, it doesn’t make client very happy, but it is just okay. So neither are very satisfied nor very dissatisfied. On the other hand, there are certain performance needs. Performance needs related to what is the efficiency of the car, whether the phone service is stable, reliable, all those things are performance needs. So the curve for the performance needs is something like this. It is a more or less a straight line. So if you don’t implement customer requirement which comes somewhere here, no implementation means dissatisfaction.

If your phone calls are falling, getting disconnected, the voice is not clear, there are interruptions, then the client will be unhappy or dissatisfied because the performance needs are not implemented. So here we have performance needs. So these are performance needs. On the other hand, if performance needs are fully satisfied, client becomes more and more happy, more and more satisfied. So this is the top when all the requirements which were performance requirements, performance needs are fully implemented, that will make client satisfied. Coming to the third type of customer requirements, which are delighters. Delighters are something which customer never expected. These were unexpected things in that for example, in the recent cars, you have cameras, you have an auto brake, if some vehicle comes in back, it stops. Those are sort of a delighters which are not a normal trend that client was not expecting too much into the cars earlier.

So those were the delighters. So the curve for delighters will be something like this. So if delighters are not implemented, you still see that it is on the neutral line. So this is something on the neutral line. So if you don’t implement that, client might really not be concerned about that. But as you implement those delighters, the client satisfaction goes exponentially up, which you can see here with a steep upward curve. So if more and more of delighters are implemented in your product or service, this will give an extreme satisfaction to the client which you can see with the exponentially rising curve here. So, if you are designing a new product or service, the first thing you would see is make sure that all the performance things, the main requirements from the product or service, you make sure that you implement that. So that’s a performance which will keep satisfaction going up and up. Make sure that you don’t default on the basic needs.

Because if you default on the basic needs, this will lead to client dissatisfaction. And as far as delighters, make sure that you pick a few delighters which will help, which will satisfy or which will delight your customer. One thing which you need to note here is as time moves with the time, all the delighters which you have put become the norm.

So for example, in the case of car, if the car automatically stops when there is a vehicle in the back or it reduces the speed, when there is a chance of front hit, all those things were delighted a few years ago. Slowly, slowly, these are becoming performance needs. And then with time these will become the basic needs or those will become the regulatory requirement. So as you move with the time, over time the items which were delighters, which were attract needs slowly become performance and then slowly become the basic needs. So that’s the time trend which happens. So this is the canoe model of customer requirements, how customer requirements are segregated into three groups and what is the effect of those on customer satisfaction.

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