Overview of goals of security: Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability

The CIA (Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability) is a security model that is designed to act as a guide for information security policies within the premises of an organization or company. The CIA criteria is one that most of the organizations and companies use in instances where they have installed a new application, creates a database or when guaranteeing access to some data. For data to be completely secure, all of these security goals must come to effect. These are security policies that all work together and therefore it can be wrong to overlook one policy.


The confidentiality aspect refers to limiting the disclosure and access of information to only the people who are authorized and preventing those not authorized from accessing it. Through this method, a company or organization is able to prevent highly sensitive and vital information from getting into the hand of the wrong people while still making it accessible to the right people.

Encryption: To begin with, encryption of data involves converting the data into a form that can only be understood by the people authorized. In this case, the information is converted in to the cipher text format that can be very difficult to understand. Once all security threats have been dealt with, the information can then be decrypted which means that the data can be converted back to its original form so that it can be understood. The encryption process can involve the use of highly sophisticated and complex computer algorithms. In this case, the algorithms cause a rearrangement of the data bits into digitized signals. If such an encryption process is used, then decryption of the same information requires one to have the appropriate decryption key. The encryption process should be carried out on data at rest; that is data stored on a hard drive or USB flash. Data in motion should also be encrypted. In this case, data in motion refers to all kind of data that is traveling across a network.

Access controls: Access controls is also another way of ensuring confidentiality. This means that one set various policies and standards when accessing information and other organization resources. One can choose to use passwords where an individual with the motive of accessing some information must provide a password so as to gain access. In most cases, one will have to set access controls to work on the basis of identification and authentication. One can use unique user identification cards for the identification process. The verification process means that one can use items such as biometric readers and passwords so as to allow access.

One can also implement physical access policies where all employees in an organization have work badges permitting them to access and use and facility or resource in the organization.

There are some major access control models that an organization can choose to implement. There is mandatory access control, discretionary access control and role-based access control.

Steganography: Steganography is also another aspect that can be used to enforce confidentiality. Basically, this is hiding information. This means that the goal of this criterion is to hide information and data from third party individuals. Steganography can involve the use of microdots and invisible ink to hide data and information.


Integrity is another security concept that entails maintaining data in a consistent, accurate and trustworthy manner over the period in which it will be existent. In this case, one has to ensure that data is not changed in the course of a certain period. In addition, the right procedures have to be taken to ensure that unauthorized people do not alter the data.

Hashing: Hashing is a kind of cryptographic science that involves the conversion of data in a manner that it is very impossible to invert it. This is mainly done when one is storing data in some storage device so that an individual who gains access to it cannot change it or cause some alterations.

Digital signatures: Digital signatures are special types of data safety maintenance where a special kind of signature is required to access some particular information. The signature can be in the form of QR code that must be properly read so as to access data.

Certificates: These are special types of user credentials that are required so as to gain access to some particular information. In this case, an individual without such certificates cannot access that piece of information. These certificates tend to guarantee some permission and rights.

Non-repudiation: Based on information security, non-repudiation is a cryptographic property that provides for the digital signing of a message by an individual who holds a private key to a particular digital signature.


The concept of availability refers to the up time maintenance of all resources and hardware. This means that all the hardware and resources one have are functional all the time. It can also involve carrying out of regular hardware repairs.

Redundancy: Redundancy is a concept that is mainly based on keeping things up and running in one's organization even with the absence of one important component. One idea behind redundancy is to keep things running and maintaining an uptime. With redundancy, one need to be sure that all one's network components and resources are working properly and that we are able to use all the resources available to us. This means that one's organization continues to function normally and as usual.

In this case therefore, one need to ensure that one has no hardware failure. In this case, one can have redundant servers or power supplies. With this, in case of a power outage, all one's systems will continue running efficiently because of there is another power supply available at one's disposal. With such redundancies, one is sure that if one component fails, there is another one that is there available and ready to take its place.

Fault tolerance: Fault tolerance is also another aspect of availability. This basically means that the system is up and working properly even when some of its components fail.


Safety is also a very important aspect not only in an organization but also some other environments such as at home. For optimal assurance of safety, there has to be some properly set strategies that are to be followed if proper safety is to be effective. Safety does not only entail being away from danger but also having the capability to prevent unauthorized access of a particular resource or facility. Safety should also include proper monitoring of all the activities happening in a particular area or vicinity.

Fencing: Fencing is one way through which safety can be affected. This basically involves erection of a barrier so as to prevent unauthorized access. In most cases, fencing is normally done so as to enclose a particular perimeter area. Fencing can be of various kinds. There can be a concrete wall to limit illegal access. One can also choose to have an electric fence surrounding one's organization or premises. The basis of fencing is so as to make sure that access to a particular premise is only available at a single place. This means that trespass of such a premises can be an offense and one can be prosecuted for it.

Lighting: Lighting is also another concept that can be used to enhance safety. This basically is an activity that involves setting up of proper lighting systems in and out of a building for proper monitoring of activities. Proper lighting is essential at night so as to provide a proper view of a specific area. In this case, one can choose to have a whole area illuminated with some special type of lamps such as spotlights. With proper lighting, it is easy to monitor activities occurring during the day and at night.

Locks: Locks are also another way of enhancing safety. These are normally set up so as to prevent access to a particular premises or section of a building. With the presence of a lock, an individual seeking access to a particular place must have the appropriate mechanism to open the lock. One can have physical door locks that require a key to open. One can also have bio-metrically controlled locks which work on the basis of biometrics. These are locks that have in-built systems that have the capability of detecting fingerprints or facial recognition. Such locks can be very secure since only an individual whose credentials are fed into the system can gain access to a building with such security systems.

CCTV: The use of CCTV is also another concept that can be used to enhance safety. This is a method of enhancing security that involves the installation of special surveillance cameras to monitor all activities in a particular building. CCTV cameras can be installed inside a building or outside depending on the area that is to be monitored. If inside a building, one needs to install them at strategic positions so that they can easily capture all the activities. The information captured is then relayed to a special type of display screen where security personnel can view all activities.

CCTV cameras are of various types and are designed to monitor in different environments. For instance, if one wants to monitor a large area such as a car park, one should install a camera that allows for a wide field of view. This can be more economical compared to having many cameras in one place.

Different CCTV cameras have different lighting requirements. With reference to this, one should be conversant with cameras that one need for different environments. There are some cameras that do not require much lighting while others require proper lighting so as to have a good view. One should therefore be conversant with some of these basic requirements.

Escape plans: There should also be some set plans and strategies to avert some damage or danger if it arises. For instance, if there is a fire outbreak there should be some laid out plans that can help people evade even with the absence of rescue crew. Escape plans can involve the availability of emergency doors that can be used to exit a building. Such doors must be easily accessible in case of a fire.

If one is in an organization, one might also consider setting up a fire assembly point. This is a specific location where all people should assemble and converge in case of a fire so as to determine the number of people still trapped in the building. Fire assembly points should be set outside a building and should be easily accessible to all.

Drills: Safety drills are also a very important aspect when planning to avert danger. Generally, these are special types of training and rehearsals for an event. With drills, people in one's organization are in a position to react very fast and with a lot of confidence in a particular emergency situation.

When performing safety drills, there are some aspects that one doesn't want to avoid such as fire, severe injury and terrorism. Apart from performing drills based on such aspects, one can also take into account some details that relate to one's organization. Basically, the performance of any specific drills must be monitored and overseen by a special type of individual. This is because he is the person responsible with ensuring that all drills are done to perfection. Drills are very important since they help in effective and rapid response in case of an emergency. Drills also help to build a sense of self-confidence when dealing with a disaster or tragedy. Each individual in one's organization must be conversant with all the drills since averting danger or disaster is a team effort and not an individual responsibility.

Escape routes: Escape routes are also a very important aspect when it comes to safety. This is the case especially in the occurrence of a fire where immediate evacuation from a building is needed. In this case, it is the responsibility of the organization to have a well planned and mapped out escape route. In this case, a full map of the building should be available on a notice board. With this map available, an individual can easily know the route to follow in case of a fire such as an underground tunnel or lift. There should be directions showing the shortest and easily accessible to everyone.

Generally, data security and physical security is a very important aspect in our day to day living and we should make sure that we enact all measures that can ensure that we operate in highly secure environments. By doing this, not only the data can be secured, but the business can also have some good performance which can be shown in the financial statements.


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