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2018: Fundamentals of Testing

6. Defects, Root Causes, Effects and Debugging

But for now, test planning is where we define the objectives of testing, decide what to test, decide who will do the testing, how they will do the testing, define the specific test activities in order to meet the objectives, and define how long and when we can consider the testing complete, which is called the exit criteria. This is when we will stop testing and give a report to the stakeholders to decide if testing was enough or not. All these, within the constraints imposed by the context of the project test blends, may be revisited based on feedback for monitoring and control activities. Next, test monitoring and control. We will also talk more about test monitoring and control in the test management section. But for now you need to know that test monitoring is the ongoing activity of comparing actual progress against the test plan using any test monitoring metrics defined in the test plan. If there are any deviations between what's actually happening and the plan, then we should do test control, which is taking any necessary action or actions to stay on track to meet the targets. Therefore, we need to undertake both planning and control during the test activities. Remember the exit criteria that were defined during a test landing? Well, during test monitoring and control, we should always evaluate the exit criteria to see if we have met them yet or not yet.Evaluating exit criteria is an activity where test execution results are assessed against the defined objectives. For example, the evaluation of exit criteria for test execution as part of a given test level may include checking test results and logs against the specified coverage criteria, assessing the level of component or system quality based on test results and logs, and determining if more tests are needed. For example, if tests designed to achieve a certain level of product risk coverage fail to doso, necessitating the creation and execution of new tests, Tested progress against the plan and the state of the exit criteria are communicated to stakeholders in test progress reports, including deviations from the plan and information to support any decision to stop testing. The test manager then will evaluate the test reports submitted by various testers and decide if we should stop testing or if testing in a specific area should continue or not. For example, if the criterion was that software performance speed be eight seconds per bare web page transaction, If the speed is below ten seconds, meaning that the criteria are not met, then there are two possible actions. The most likely option is to employ extra testing activities until we achieve the desired performance. The least likely is to change the exit criteria, which will require approval from the key stakeholders in Azure Life Cycles, to what's called the "definition of done." Again, we will talk more about test monitoring and control in the test management section.

7. Concept of Test Coverage in Software Testing

Concerned with the finer points of knowing what to test and breaking it down into fine testable elements known as test conditions, It's the activity during which general testing objectives are transformed into real test conditions. During test analysis, any information or documentation we have is analysed to identify testable features and define associated test conditions. One term we need to learn is "test basis." Test basis is any sort of documentation that we can use as a reference or base to know what to test. Again, we will talk more about test bases in the following section. Test analysis includes the following major activities: analysing and understanding any documentation that we will use for testing to make sure it's testable. Examples of test basis include requirement specifications such as business requirements, functional requirements, system requirements, user stories, Epics use cases, or similar work products that specify desired functional and nonfunctional component or system behavior. also design and implementation information such as system or software architecture diagrams or documents, design specifications, call flows modelling diagrams, for example, UML or entity relationship diagrams, interface specifications, or similar worker products that specify component or system structure. We also have the implementation of the component or system itself, including code, database, metadata, queries, and interfaces. Risk Analysis Reports, which list all the items in the software that are risky and require more attention from us. Risky Analysis Reports may consider functional, nonfunctional, and structural aspects of the component or system. All those are examples of test bases. While we are analysing the test bases, it will be a very good opportunity to evaluate the test bases and test items to identify defects of various types, such as ambiguities—something that is confusing to the reader and might be interpreted differently by different people or measures. Something is not mentioned in inconsistencies; something was mentioned in one place but was mentioned differently elsewhere in accuracy. Something is not accurate. Contradictions: A contradiction between two statements is a stronger kind of inconsistency between them. If two sentences are contradictory, then one must be true and one must be false. But if they are inconsistent, then both could be false. Superfluous statements are unnecessary statements that add nothing to their meaning. Actually, it's a skill to read a document and find effects in it. Not everyone can do it. It's a skill, but it's also a science that can be taught. So I should consider making a course about it, but I need to see students like you actually asking for it. It should be called Requirements Testing, so if you're interested, just shout out in the Questions and Answers section. The identification of defects during test analysis is a significant potential benefit, especially where no other review process is being used and/or the test process is closely connected with the review process. After analyzing, understanding, and evaluating the test basis, we should be able to identify the features and sets of features to be tested. Then we should be able to define and barricade the test conditions for each feature based on the analysis of the test basis and considering functional, nonfunctional, and structural characteristics, other business and technical factors, and levels of risk. Finally, we should be able to capture bidirectional traceability between each element of the test base and the associated test conditions. Traceability here means that we need to make sure that we have tested conditions for all the features that we decided to test. Of course, we should do everything we can to reduce the likelihood of omitting necessary test conditions and define more precise and accurate test conditions. Techniques like Black Box, White Box, and experience-based test techniques, which we will talk about in a later section, can be useful in the process of test analysis. Such test analysis activities not only verify whether the requirements are consistent, adequately expressed, and complete, but also validate whether the requirements accurately capture customer, user, and other stakeholders' needs. During test design, the test conditions are elaborated into high-level test cases, sets of high-level test cases, and other testware. So test analysis answers the question: what to test? While test design answers the question "how to test?" Test design includes the following major activities: designing and preeturizing test cases and sets of tests. The elaboration of test conditions into test cases and sets of test cases during the test design often involves using test techniques, as we will discuss in a later section. Identifying necessary test data to support test conditions and test cases Here we decide what data we should use to test the test conditions and how to combine test conditions so that a small number of test cases can cover as many of the test conditions as possible, designing the test environment, and identifying any required infrastructure and tools. And finally, again, we need to capture bidirectional traceability between the test bases, test conditions, test cases, and test procedures. As with test analysis, test design may also result in the identification of similar types of defects in the test basis, which we have said before is a significant potential benefit.

8. The Seven testing Principles

During test implementations, where necessary, the test is created and/or completed, including sequencing statistic cases into test procedures. So, test design answers the question: how to test? While test implementation answers the question, do we now have everything needed to run the tests? Test implementation includes the following major activities: developing and prioritising the test procedures, and potentially creating automated test scripts. Create test suites, form the test procedures and automated test oscopes, if any, and arrange the test suites within a test execution schedule in a way that results in efficient test execution. We will talk more about the management aspect of everything, including test scheduling, in the test management section. building the test environment, and sometimes it's hard to build a test environment similar to what the customer has. So in that case, we might also need to build simulators, services, virtualization, and other infrastructure items like test harnesses. Again, we will talk about this harness in the next section. All in all, we need to verify that everything needed has been set up correctly. And as we have said, we need to prepare and implement tested data and ensure it's properly loaded in the test environment. Finally, the bidirectional traceability between the test bases is verified and updated. Test conditions, test cases, test procedures, and testSuites The service says that test design and test implementation tasks are often combined. Actually, I would add the same concept about NSA testing as well. This is a critical point. Actually, in simple words, it means that in real life we don't have strict borders between test analysis, test design, and test implementation. Many times, you would be doing all three of them at the same time. I will explain more. So far, we've said we create test conditions during test analysis, we create test cases during test design, and we create or implement test procedures during test implementation. Now, think about it. If, during your test analysis, you created the "before 20" range test condition, remember our example, and you thought that ten would be a good input to use as an input for the test condition, would you say no, that I'm in the test analysis right now and they shouldn't create test cases? Of course not. You simply create what you can while you are doing the analysis, design, or implementation. So really, you use all the information that you have at the moment and don't really think about whether you are in test analysis, test design, or test implementation. So, for the exam, yes, we say we create test conditions in test analysis, and those test conditions grow into test cases in test design. And we purchased the steps for developing test procedures for test implementation. For example, when we ask, "When do we create test data?" we know that data should be created along with test cases. Test cases cannot become test cases without data. But for example, if we decided that we needed a file of data to use in our test cases Then we design the test data in the test design stage, but we actually create the file that contains such data in the testimony stage. Test Execution During test execution, test suites are run in accordance with the test execution schedule. As tests are run, the outcome, or actual results, need to be logged and compared to the expected results. And whenever there is a discrepancy between the expected and actual results, a test incident, or as we call it, a bug report, should be raised to trigger an investigation. Test incidents will be discussed in the Test Management section. Test execution includes the following major activities: keeping a log of testing activities, including the outcome pass or fail), the versions of software, data, and tools, and recording the IDs and versions of the test items or test objects and the test tools and test wheel used in running the tests. Also, run test cases in the determined order manually or using test automation tools. comparing actual results with expected results and analysing anomalies to establish their likely causes. Anomalies are when there's a difference between actual and expected results. As we have said before, not every variance between actual and expected results is a bug. Yes, some anomalies or failures may occur due to the facts in the code, but false alarms also may occur. I have mentioned false bosses before, remember? Reporting defects based on observed failures with as much detail as possible and communicating them to the developer in order to try to fix them After fixing the bug, we need to repeat certain activities to confirm that the bug was actually fixed, which is called confirmation testing. Also, we need to make sure that the new fix didn't occur unintentionally. Introduce new bugs in areas that were already working, which is called regression testing. Verifying and updating bidirectional processing, that is, between the test conditions, test cases, procedures, and tests.

9. Test Conditions, Test Cases, Test Procedure and Test Suites

Test completion activities occur at project milestones, such as when a software system is released, a test project is completed or canceled, a milestone has been achieved, an agile project iteration is finished as part of a retrospective meeting at this level, or a maintenance release has been completed. Test completion activities collected data from completed test activities to consolidate experience, test results, and any other relevant information. Test completion activities concentrate on making sure that everything is finalized, synchronized, and documented, that reboots are rated as having closed defects, and that those defects deferred for another phase are clearly seen to be as such. The first completion includes the following major activities: Checking which blend deliverables have been delivered and ensuring that the documentation is in order, the requirement document is in sync with the design document, which is in sync with the delivered software. Checking whether all defects on your boards are closed and entering change requests or product backlog items for any defects that remain unresolved at the end of the test exclusion Creating a test summary we wanted to be communicated to stakeholders, finalising and archiving the test environment, the test data, the test infrastructure, and other testware for later views Make sure that we delete any confidential data before handing over the testware to the maintenance teams, other project teams, and all other stakeholders who could benefit from its use. As previously stated, while the main activities in the testing process are sequential, they can be thought of as iterative rather than sequential. Aerial activities may need to be revisited according to the circumstances. According to the result of the test report, we might need to replan the whole testing activity to add more time to the testing activity. A defect found may force us to revisit the analysis of the design stage to create test cases that are more detailed. If we discovered a defect in which a piece of functionality is missing, we may need to revisit, plan, and control how much time and resources we will devote to the newly added functionality. Moreover, we sometimes need to do two or more of the main activities in parallel. Time pressure can mean that we begin test execution before all tests have been designed.

10. The Test Process

Test worker products are created as part of the test process; they are whatever we may need to create during the test process. I considered combining this video with the previous video explaining the testing process group activities, but I decided against it so that you could compare the different worker products of each stage in the tested process more easily. Just as there is significant variation in the way that organisations implement the testing process, there is also significant variation in the types of worker products created during that process, in the ways those work products are organised and managed, and in the names or titles used for those work products. What we are presenting here are the test work products of a very formal test process where we create all sorts of test worker products, which is not always the case for the exam. Of course, we need to know which worker product is created when this syllabus adheres to the testing process outlined above and the work of products described in this service and in the ISTB Grocery ISO Standard ISO/IEC 29119-3 may also serve as a guideline for test worker borders. So, to summarize, ISO Standard 29 1191 discusses software testing concepts, ISO Standard 29119 discusses software testing processes, and ISO Standard 29119 discusses test work products. So far, so good. Let's now look at the test worker product for every stage in the testing process. Test the Blending Walker Products: Tests of the Blending Walker Products typically include one or more test plans. We will talk about the test plan in a future section, so let's save it for now. Testing, Monitoring, and Controlling Worker Products Typical testmonitoring and control walker products include various types of test reboots, such as test progress reports that are reduced on an ongoing and/or regular basis and test summary reports that are reduced at various completion milestones. So just know the difference. Test progress reports are reduced on an ongoing and regular basis, where test summary reports are reduced at various complaint milestones. All test reports should provide the audience relevant details about the test's progress as of the date of the report, including summarising statistical execution results once those become available. Test mounting and control worker products should also address project management concerns such as test completion, resource allocation and usage, and effort. In the test management section, we will go over the work of products created during test monitoring and control in greater detail. Test Analysis Worker Test analysis worker products include documents that contain defined barriers to the test conditions, each of which is ideally bidirectionally traceable to the specific element or elements of the test base it covers. There could be hundreds or thousands of test conditions, so we need to utilise them, starting with the most critical conditions first so we can provide the highest ranking test conditions with more care, time, and effort. Test Design Worker Products Test design results in test cases and sets of test cases to exercise the test conditions defined in test analysis. As we have said, it's often a good practise to design logical test cases, also called high-level tests, without providing concrete values for input data and expected results. Such high-level test cases are reusable across multiple test cycles with different concrete data, while still adequately determining the scope of the test case. Again, there could be hundreds or thousands of test cases, so we need to prioritise them, putting the most critical ones first, so we can provide the highest-ranking cases with extra attention. Ideally, each test case is bidirectionally traceable to the test conditions it covers. Remember that each test can trace back to one or more test conditions, and each test condition can trace forward to one or more test cases. Besides designing test cases, test design also results in the design and or identification of necessary test data, the design of the test environment, and the identification of infrastructure and tools. Though the extent to which these results are documented varies greatly depending on the test design, we may need to go back and refine the test conditions defined in the test analysis if necessary. Product Testing and Implementation As you may have expected already, test implementation work products include test procedures and the sequencing of those test procedures. Test suites also contain a test execution schedule, which contains the steps to execute the test procedures that are run sequentially at a scheduled time or when they are triggered by a build completion. Again, we will talk more about the test execution schedule in the test management section. Remember that the main objective of test implementation is to make sure that everything is ready for test execution. Again, there could be hundreds of thousands of test procedures, so we need to prioritise them, but we should prioritise the most critical test procedures first so we can provide the highest ranking test procedures. Increased Execution Frequency In some cases, test implementation entails developing a workable that can be used by tools such as services, virtualization, and automated test scripts. This implementation may also result in the creation and verification of this data and the test environment. The completeness of the documentation of the data and/or environment verification results may vary significantly. The list data serves to assign concrete values to the inputs and expected results of test cases. Such concrete values, together with explicit directions about the use of the concrete values, turn high-level test cases or logical test cases into executable low-level test cases or concrete test cases. The same high-level test case may use different test data when executed on different releases of the festival. Ideally, once test implementation is complete, the achievement of the coverage criteria established in the test plan can be demonstrated via bidirectional traceability between test procedures and the specific elements of the test database through the test cases and test conditions. Test conditions defined in test analysis may be further refined in test implementation. Test execution work products include documentation of the status of individual test cases or test procedures, for example, ready to run, pass, fail, block, deliberately skip, and so on. And we also have defect reports, which we'll talk about in a different section of the documentation, about which items or items tested the object or objects. These tools and testing were involved in the testing. Ideally, once test execution is complete, the status of each element of the testbase can be determined and reported via bidirectional traceability with associated test procedures. For example, we can say which requirements have passed or blended tests, which requirements have failed tests and/or have defects associated with them, and which requirements have blend tests still waiting to be run. This enables verification that the coverage criteria have been met and enables the reporting of test results in terms that are understandable to stakeholders. Test Completion Work broader test completion workouts include test summary reports and action items for future projects or iterations' improvement. For example, following an Agile project with respective change requests or product backlogs and finalised testware.

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