ISACA COBIT 5 – Define (BOK IV) Part 8

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- January 26, 2023

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**20. Analytical Tools – Tree Diagrams (BOK IV.D.2) **

So after talking about affinity diagram, let’s talk about the second tool and which is tree diagram. So tree diagram is to break down a goal or a broad category into fine levels of detail and fine level of details that contributes to that issue. If this doesn’t make sense, don’t worry about that. Once we look at the next slide which actually shows what a tree diagram is, that will make a better sense. So let’s look at an example of tree diagram on the next slide to understand what this diagram is and what purpose this serves. So here I have a tree diagram.

So I have a broad objective or a broad subject which is passing the certified Six Sigma Black Belt Exam. So that’s a broad theme. And then you can subdivide that into number of sections. The subcomponents of that could be motivation. You need to have motivation, you need to have books, you need to have videos, you need to have quizzes, and then in motivations, you need to have organizational support, finance, et cetera, et cetera.

So you keep on breaking one big item into smaller items to have a better understanding of that. Similar thing, you would have seen earlier in WBS work breakdown Structure, where we broke down the physical thing into sub components. This is similar to that. So the similar concept is used in fault tree diagram where you have a fault and then the causes of that you break down. Or this could be similar to cause and effect. For example, let’s take an example of welding, which you take. So here I have welding defect.

This could be crack, this could be porosity. So these are type of weld defects. And then the causes of that porosity could be moisture because of wind. So this is how you use tree diagram to break down a big thing into smaller pieces so that you can take care of those smaller pieces. So if you have to deal with weld defects, then you can look at these components here. Once you take care of these, the weld defect will be taken care of here. Same thing here. If you take care of this, if you have a motivation, if you have a books, handbooks, YouTube videos, a Udemy course, then you can consider that you might be able to pass your certified Six Sigma Black Belt Exam. So that completes our discussion on tree diagram.

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**21. Analytical Tools – Matrix Diagrams (BOK IV.D.3) **

So coming to the next tool, which is matrix diagram, what is matrix diagram? Matrix diagram shows relationship between two or more groups and what are those groups? What relationship? If things do not make sense, don’t worry. Let’s see one example and that will make things much clearer. Let’s go to the next slide and look at one example of matrix diagram. So here I have an example of matrix diagram. This is L shaped matrix because this is in the form of L. If you look at here, this is an L shaped matrix. There are other shapes also we will be talking about that as well in this section. So what does this matrix shows? This matrix shows that in a course, in a training course, there are five sections, section one, section two, section three and section four, five.

And then each of these section is evaluated on a set of criteria and those criteria includes what’s a difficulty level, what is the level of conceptual knowledge in that, what is the level of statistical knowledge in that and what is the business application of that. So each section, if you look at that, let’s look at section one. So section one has a difficulty level of one and all these number are on the scale of one to five, where one is low and five is high. So if I say the difficulty level of section one is one, that means it’s a low difficulty. Conceptual knowledge is four. So it’s sufficiently high conceptual knowledge involved in section one. There is no statistical or a very low statistical knowledge here and there is a limited business application of this.

So that’s how you represent that with numbers in a matrix. Similarly, if you look at some, let’s say section three, section three has a very high business application or if you look at section five, section five has a very high statistical knowledge involved in that. So this forms a matrix which shows relationship between two groups and two groups. Here are the sections of the book or sections of the course and the characteristics of that particular section. So this is how you create an L shaped matrix. You would have seen this sort of a matrix a lot of places. This is quite commonly used tool. So after talking about Lshaped matrix, let’s move on to the next slide to see some other shape. And that shape is Tshaped matrix. Let’s look at a T shaped matrix.

So here I have a T shaped matrix. So earlier in L shaped matrix we were looking at the relationship between two groups. Now here you can have relationship between three groups using a P shaped matrix. So a hypothetical example here is something a simplified version of a car manufacturing company which has five products, product 12345. And then it is looking at the characteristics of that product, the efficiency, pickup, look and comfort and the market of that. So here you have a market here you have the characteristics of that and here you have a product. So in this you have three groups. So if you look at the bottom part of the matrix here, this shows the relationship between the product and the characteristics of the product.

So if you see product number one, product number one has a low rating on efficiency pickup, look and comfort. Similarly, if you look at product number three, product number three has a very good efficiency pickup, look and comfort. So looking at that, you can see that product number three is a sort of a premium product. But how does this behave in the market? For that you can see at the top part of this matrix, which tells that returns are low, complaints are low and sale is high. And once again these numbers are one to five, one is for low and five is for high. Similarly, if you look at the product number one, product number one was a cheaper product, had a low efficiency, low pickup, poor look, less comfort, and same thing here. If you see at the top it has a high return, high complaints and low sale.

So in this example you can see that, you can see the relationship between three groups. If you want to see a relationship between these things, the relationship between the market and the characteristics of the product, that is not shown here. What you see here is the relationship between the product and the market which is at the top and the product and the characteristics which is at the bottom. But you don’t see the relationship between these two things, the market and characteristics. Market and characteristics, you don’t see the relationship between that and what does that mean? Is does look leads to more sale. So if you need to make that sort of a matrix, then you need to go for a Y matrix. So you have a T matrix here, just like this. If I just turn it around by 90 degree, this is your T matrix. And what will happen in Y matrix is something like this. Here you have relationships mentioned here, but you don’t have relationship mentioned here.

But in Y matrix if you just turn these axes and then you can have relationship between this and this here and relationship between this and this, you can mark it here and relationship at the top can be marked here, so that will become a Y matrix. It looks slightly complicated. So that’s the reason I have not covered here with an example. But you can understand, with a slight change your T matrix could be converted to a Y matrix. So after talking about L shaped, T shaped and Y shaped matrix, let’s talk about X shaped matrix. So just like T, we had this portion as a T matrix and here in X matrix this another dimension has been added, another group has been added here. So earlier in T shaped you had three groups. So group one, two and three, the relationship between these three. But in X shape, you can add a group number four also. So that becomes an X shaped matrix.

The next one is roof shaped matrix. So if you look at this, and if you remember earlier, we have talked about quality function deployment. This has been picked from the QFD, quality function deployment here. In roof shaped matrix, we are not showing relationship between two groups. We are showing relationship between one group only within that group. So suppose in the earlier case of car, if we wanted to look at the relationship between the look, the pickup, the comfort, that relationship could have been shown using a roof shaped matrix.

So you would have a look here, you will have a comfort here, you will have a pickup here, and you might have an efficiency here. Then you can look at relationship between these. So if you want to look at the relationship between efficiency and look, so this is the way, this is the box where you will put that relationship between look and efficiency. And if there’s no relationship between that, you will say that there’s a poor relationship between look and efficiency. There is a strong relationship between pickup and efficiency. So that’s where you will put that. Okay, this is what will have a very strong relationship between pickup, pickup and efficiency. So if pickup gets more, efficiency goes low. So that’s how you create a roof shaped matrix. So with that, we completed our discussion on matrix.

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**22. Analytical Tools – Prioritization Matrices (BOK IV.D.4) **

So coming to the next tool which is prioritization matrix. Prioritization matrix is similar to matrix diagram which we have learned earlier. So we talked about Lshaped matrix earlier, let’s look at that L shaped matrix and see how you can use that as a prioritization matrix. And why do you need prioritization matrix? You need that because when you need to choose out of number of options, if you need to select a project, that’s where you need a prioritization matrix. So let’s look at the example of that to have better understanding. So this example is similar to what we learned in Lshaped matrix diagram. So we have a relationship between product and the product characteristics, characteristics for Efficiency, pickup, look and Comfort. And we have five products here, but one thing which has been added here is importance of those characteristics.

What is the importance which is being given to these characteristics? So efficiency has been given an importance of zero three. Pick up zero one, look is zero four and comfort is zero two and together they make it one. So 30% importance is for efficiency and 40% importance is for look. So look is given more importance here. Then you look at each of your product and see where they fall on the scale of one to five. For example, so product number one was at the scale of at two. On the scale of one to five, pick up at one, look at one and comfort at two.

So all these values are low values and if you look at product number three, which is all these are high values, so that means product three looks better, but then which one to select that? So what we do here is mathematical calculation is you multiply this importance with this number, so 0. 3 multiplied by two becomes 0. 60. 1 here multiplied by one becomes 0. 10. 4, which is the importance of look. When you multiply it by rating one, this becomes 0. 4 and when you multiply zero two, which is the importance for comfort with the rating of two, so this becomes 0. 4. And once you add all these things, that gives you this number which is 1. 5. So product number one has 1. 5 as a final rating and product number three has a 4. 7 as a final rating. So based on these ratings, you can decide which product product to launch or which project to go for. So this was a simple example showing how to use prioritization matrix when you have to make a choice.

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