Amazon AWS Certified Advanced Networking Specialty – Networking & AWS Primer Part 4

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• January 16, 2023
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10. IPV4 Addressing SchemeHey, everyone, and welcome back to the KP Labs course. So in today’s lecture, we’ll look into the IPV for addressing scheme. So let’s get started. So generally, an IPV four protocol defines IP address as a 32 bit number. So when you talk about 32 bit number, this bit basically represents a single binary user unit here. So when you talk about decimal so when you talk about IP address, first, let’s discuss. So, IP address is generally represented as dot decimal notation consisting of four decimal numbers ranging from zero to 255. So there are four decimal numbers over here, and after each decimal number, there is a dot notation which is added.

Now, when you convert this decimal into binary, you will get this binary equivalent. We already discussed this in the earlier lecture. Now, one important thing to remember is that since IPV four protocol defines maximum of 32 bit number, so if you add each one of them, so this is first bit, second with third bit, fourth bit, fifth, six, seven, eight. So each of these is called as an octet. And octet has eight bits. So this is eight bits, and this is eight bits. You have this eight bits, and you have this is as eight bits. So there are four eight bit octets which are present.

And if you convert 32 bit into bytes, it will become four bytes in total. Now, you might ask like, why the IP address can range only till 255, why we cannot have an IP address from starting like 256, 50. We cannot really have that. Let’s understand why. So why maximum of 255. So in order to understand that, we’ll take the same table that we had discussed in the earlier lecture. Now, when you add so since this is maximum 32 bits, we cannot really extend more. So it can be extended only till two raised to power seven. Because, you see, so here everything is one.

So this is the last thing. So it can maybe start from 00001 to 1111. So this is the last range that we can achieve. So when you have all the bit as one, so let’s add so 128 is one. So 128 plus 64 plus 32 plus 16 plus eight plus four, plus two, plus one. So if you add each one of them, then the value becomes 255. So you cannot, you cannot have IP address beyond 255 range, because here it is defined as a 32 bit number. So this was already defined in the RFC, which you cannot change. So this is why it can stay up to the 255 range only th.

11. Understanding IPV6

Hey everyone, and welcome back to the Kplabs course. So IPV Six is finally here, and I’m sure that everyone might be asking, is it really necessary to learn? And the answer is yes. At least the high level overview will work out. So let’s start from the beginning. Now, IPV Four has has been one of our favorites, except the subletting part. So basically, when the IPV Four addressing scheme and the protocols were designed, even before I was born, actually, the current age of mobile phones and Bluetooth speakers and wireless routers everywhere. So all of those things were considered as science fiction. So IPV Four protocol, or I would say does not actually address all the concerns of the modern age. So there are a lot of limitations which were present in the IPV Four protocol which were addressed later by the IPV Six protocol. So one of the major concerns of IPV Four protocol was lack of address. So IPV four allowed 4 billion IP address.

You might think that is enough, but actually it is not. So nowadays everyone has like a mobile phone, right? And each mobile phone has a 3G or maybe 4G connection. So every household might have like four or five internet connections through mobile phone of each and every individual members. So ultimately, 4 billion IP address is not suffice for this modern age. And this is the reason why IPV Six address has was designed and is now being used by a lot of organizations. So IPV Six address space is really huge. So it is up to like 340 trillion, trillion, trillion addresses. So these are the amount of addresses which are possible within the IPV Six protocol. I’ll be able to count it, but if you do, you can try it out. So speaking about IPV Four, now IPV Four address space was of just 32 bits. And if you look over here, I’m sure you remember this.

So you put zero, zero, zero ahead and you can decode it. And after that you have the first block, you have the second block, and you have the last block. So out of eight blocks, you just have three blocks. So during the decoding time, the four blocks that were omitted, it will automatically get added into this portion right here. So this is the high level overview about the IPV Six addressing scheme. Again, whenever the relevant time comes, we’ll go more into detail related to how exactly things work over here. So I just wanted to show you a few interesting things. So again, there are a lot of hosting providers which have been supporting IPV Six. So I have EC two instance and this EC two instance has both the IPV four address and the IPV six address. So if you see over here, this is the IPV Six address. And I have one more EC Two instance which I’ll be using as a client to connect via SSH on the IPV Six port of this specific EC Two instance. Perfect. So let’s do one thing. Let’s begin the practical. So this specific instance is the server. So this is the Kplabs have an IPV Six server and let’s copy the IPV Six address of this specific server. So I’ll copy this one and this IPV six client.

Let me quickly show you, this IPV Six client has a private IP of 39. So if you see in the second tab, this is the IP address, which is 39. Perfect. So let me go to the IPV Six server. And if you do, an IP is config. You’ll see under the inat six Agdr, this is the IPV Six address associated with this instance. So if you quickly compare EE seven F, and if you’ll go over here, it is EE seven F. Perfect. So this seems to be proper. So let’s do one thing. Let’s try and connect via IPV Six from the SSH. So I have the private key here. So I’ll do SSH I KP Labs PM ecto user at the rate I’ll copy the IPV six address and I’ll paste it over here. Perfect. And now you see we are actually connected via the IPV six. Now, one important thing to remember is that if you run similar command, let me try and run similar command from my local desktop. So if I just paste the same command, you see, it is saying network is unreachable. And the reason why it is saying is because of the routing issue.

Now, till now, we always have been working with IPV four. And all the routes that are configured, they are configured for IPV Four, they are not really configured for IPV Six. And this is the reason why. We actually tried connecting from EC to Instance, which already has a perfect IPV Six routes which are configured. So this is it, about the IPV Six. As a high level overview, I hope this has been informative for you, and in the upcoming lectures we’ll discuss more about IPV Six when the time comes. One important thing to remember is that when it comes to IPV Six, traditional commands will not work. Like for ping. You cannot do a ping on the IPV Six address. There are new packages like you have Ping six, you have DHCP six, and even the protocols. You have ICMP version Six, which are introduced specific for the IPV Six protocols. So this is it, about this lecture. I really hope it gave you a high level overview on what IPV Six is all about, and I look forward to seeing you in the next lecture.

12. IPV6 – Integrating it with VPC – Part 01

Hey everyone, and welcome back to the Kplabs course. So in the early lecture, we had a very high level overview about the IPV Six protocol. So continuing my journey, in today’s lecture, we will discuss on how we can enable IPV Six in our AWS VPC. So I’m in the AC to console, and if you see, I have two servers over here, and each of the server has both the public IPV Four as well as the IPV Six address which are associated. So if you go into the VPC console, if you will see the two servers which we just looked belong to the KP Labs Hyper IPV Six VPC which has both the IPV Four CIDR as well as the IPV Six CIDR. So in case you have an existing VPC which does not really have an IPV Six CIDR, you have the flexibility to add it. So if you go to the edit CIDR, click on add an IPV Six CIDR, the CIDR will automatically be assigned to you and you can go ahead and click on Close. So once you do that, you see you also now have the IPV Six CIDR which is associated. So the new instances that you launch will have the IPV Six and you can even attach the IPV Six to the existing instance.

So in today’s lecture, we’ll create the entire new VPC with the IPV Six enabled to see the end to end flow and how it would really look like. So the first thing that we’ll do, we’ll create a new VPC. I’ll say demo IPV six. So the IPV four CIDR block, which is mandatory. Remember that even though you want an IPV Six, the IPV Four block is a mandatory one. So just define the IPV Four CID are here. I’ll put 10660 00:16 within the IPV. Six CIDR block. Just select the second option which is Amazon provided IPV Six CIDR block and click on yes Create. So this is created.

So now you have the Demo VPC. Let me just go here. And so you have the demo IPV six VPC name, which has the IPV four CIDR. And it also has the IPV six CIDR. So once your VPC is created, go ahead and click on Subnets. And we’ll go and click on Create subnet. So I’ll say demo IPV six subnet. The Availability zone will be one a the CID and block that we can assign is 1066. Even at the subnet level, you’ll have to manually specify. So I’ll just put zero two on the last block and I’ll click on Escreate. Perfect. So now that we have our subnet within the route table, if you will see there are two routes which are pre created. One is for the IPV Four, and second is for the IPV Six communication. Perfect. So now that we have our subnets which are configured, the third thing that we’ll have to do is we’ll have to create an Internet gateway. I’ll name it Demo. IPV six IGW.

And once the Internet gateway is created, we’ll go ahead and attach the Internet gateway to the VPC that we have created. So I’ll attach this Internet gateway to our demo. IPV six VPC. Perfect. So this seems to be great. So now let’s again filter out by demo IPV Six VPC. And since we have one subnet, the route table associated with the subnet does not really have any Internet gateway. So click on Edit and I’ll go to the associated route table. So we’ll have to add the Internet gateway over here, otherwise we will not have an Internet connectivity. Perfect. So I’ll go ahead and I’ll click on Edit over here and I’ll add another route. So this thing, the route would be for zero. I’ll put it to Internet gateway. So this is for all the IPV Four addresses.

You’ll also have to add one more route for the IPV Six address and that would be this one. So you add this specific input. So in case you are not able to see, this is what it really looks like. So you add this one as the destination and again the target would be the Internet gateway. Go ahead and click on Save and we are good to go as far as the VPC endpoint is concerned for IPV Six. Perfect. So one more thing, let me just verify perfect things seems to be great. So what we do, we’ll go ahead and click on launch instance I’ll use the Amazon Linux AMI t two micro seems to be good. So we’ll use the T two micro. The VPC would be the demo IPV Six VPC. The subnet is automatically created. So Auto assigned Public IPV four IP I’ll enable this from here and autoassign.

IPV six. IP Again I’ll enable this from here. So both the IPV Four and the IPV Six IPS will be assigned to the instances number of instances I’ll select as two. One will be for the server and second will use it as the client. So the security group if you will see there are two security groups which are created on the port 22. One is for the zero. So this corresponds to the IPV Four and second one current responds to the IPV Six one. So let’s go ahead and do a review and Launch I’ll launch it with the appropriate key pair and I’ll click on Launch instances. Perfect. So the instances will be launched. So go ahead and configure a new VPC and create new to T two micro instances. And in the upcoming lecture we’ll look into the connectivity as far as the IPV Six is concerned. So this is it. About this lecture, I hope this has been informative for you and I look forward to seeing you in the next lecture.

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